Military Chemistry and Chemical Agents 1942

This document is refered to by multiple Chemical Warfare textbooks used on Treasure Island and was the definition of Chemical Warfare Training during World War II. Unfortunately the training chemicals for chemical warfare were deadly poisons and the chemicals used to clean are deadly poisons. Here is a photograph of the gas mask training at Edgewood Arsenal where the plane is spraying “Asbestine” which was asbestos and talcum powder onto the unsuspecting recruits.

Naval Trainign Bulletin 1`5 March 1944

The other training chemical which was used to simulate Mustard Gas was mostly Molasses with sand and Cresols which are a deadly poison. This was dumped on 60,000 soldiers trained in chemical warfare for World War II and the VA made an alotment for their exposure durinig the war. My guess is nobody told the VA that they continued this training after the war and to this day.

All battles of World War II had Chemical Warfare ready to be used if the Axis powers decided to use them. It was the first demonstration of Mutually Assured Destruction in combat and it was not used in the war for offensive conflict against the allies. The Japanese had used it in China when they invaded in the early 30s but did not use it against The US in the war. They knew we had perfected our techniques and were ready to use them!

This is the revised edition for the Training Manual 1942 and the revisions were located at the front of the document. Also understand that these chemical weapons used full laboratories to make the agents, and those other chemicals are listed in this publication. I will post the chemical weapons and the chemicals used directly for working with them in the field whther in combat or in medical treatment in an index at the end and their current status of toxicity.

  • The new agents for 1942:
    • 144.1 Phenyldichlorarsine
    • 158.2 Hydrocyanic Acid
    • 158.3 Cyanogen Chloride – which was made in Linden NJ
    • 158.1 Arsine

In Training manuals the numbering system is for the item numbers and not the page numbers and to provide an index at the and of this document. Thsi is done so the new agents can fit into existing documents with other numbered toxins under their categories without having to number them again. It is important to standardize all training to the same exact specifications so it can be done anywhere. This procedure would continue for all CBR Training on all bases. The main document was printed in 1940 so it uses different terms. Eveyrthing was standardized in the war so the British Chemical Warfare agent names and descriptions matched with the US Names and descriptions. So for instance Mustard Gas was (H) it is now (HS). Later editions would fix this.

Mustard Gas Test at Treasure Island 1964

The Navy applied the Mustard Gas as a liquid onto a field gun, a mock up of a ship and a mock up of an airplane along with several vertical steel placards that they set up on the island to measure the different effects of weathering on an application of Mustard as a liquid onto these plaques. By using it in liquid form the concentration of the vapors from evaporation would be 50 times the lethal amount than from it being deployed as gas. The Training used mustard gas as a liquid and here is the information from this document of the danger. The concentrations at lower temperatures are still multiples of the lethal amount.

Continue reading “Military Chemistry and Chemical Agents 1942”

1978 EIS Appendix C-4 Radiological Decontamination Training Facility (Bromine Field)

1978 Environmental Impact Statement for the Army to build a brand new Chemical, Biological and Radiological Training Facility with references to the training at Treasure Island. These are the Course instructions, how they did it, what they measured out, etc.

Similar facilities are in this articleon Treasure Island.

Continue reading “1978 EIS Appendix C-4 Radiological Decontamination Training Facility (Bromine Field)”

1978 EIS Appendix C-2 – Mustard Decontamination Exercise

1978 Environmental Impact Statement for the Army to build a brand new Chemical, Biological and Radiological Training Facility with references to the training at Treasure Island. These are the Course instructions, how they did it, what they measured out, etc.
The Government compensated Veterans of World War II for their training exposure to Mustard Gas and Lewisite (Aresenic) Chemical weapons. Unfortunately nobody mentioned that they didn’t stop using it for training even after the Treaties Banning it were passed.

Continue reading “1978 EIS Appendix C-2 – Mustard Decontamination Exercise”

Stauffer Chemical Richmond on list of 153 Sites for the Nuclear Weapons Industry

USA Today had an article on the sites contaminated for the production of the Atomic Bomb. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission came up with this list of 153 sites all over the US in response to the FOIA request.
Memo to Commissioners TAs from J. Craig, EDO re: Staff Evaluation of Sites Indentified in the USA Today Article Dated 09/06/00.

Note that cleanup of nuclear materials before 1959 was concerned with preventing radiation sickness but when people started to develop cancer, the standards changed drastically. So sites cleaned up even a few years ago, including Treasure Island where the standards of the time exceed the safe levels today. This is a preliminary list, there are more.

Continue reading “Stauffer Chemical Richmond on list of 153 Sites for the Nuclear Weapons Industry”

Stauffer Chemical in Richmond using Radiological materials as late as 1997

this is alicense amednment which lists the qualifications of a resume for Dr. Edward A. Weck, Head, Molecular Genetics Research which lists his Radiological work at Stauffer Chemical.

Additional industrial experience was gained at Stauffer Chemical Co., Richmond, CA from February 1985 through March 1987 where I served as Assistant Radiation Safety Officer. We had annual presentations on the safe use of radioactivity from our local health physicist and from a New England Nuclear consultant. I worked with 32P and 35S and was responsible with organizing removal of radioactive waste by US Ecology of Hayward, CA.


Stauffer Chemical in Richmond CA processed uranium NRC records 1962

Stauffer Chemical (now Astra Zeneca) had a uranium processing mill in Richmond CA. This is the Atomic Energy Commission license to process and cut uranium for use in Nuclear Weapons. I am placing this article on my Treasure Island page as Stauffer Chemical Company was a supplier for the US Chemical Warfare Service in World War II and after and Treasure Island conducted training using Mustard Gas, a poison gas which was outlawed in the Treaty of Versailles.

Stauffer Chemical Company was immediately to the East of what is now the UC Berkeley Richmond Field Station, which also includes the US EPA Field Laboratory for Region 9 which encompasses California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, the Pacific Islands and Native American toxic waste sites. It is also less than a mile from the California Department of Public Health and all of these locations are within contamination range of the site. Nuclear radatiion can affect lab equipment.

Continue reading “Stauffer Chemical in Richmond CA processed uranium NRC records 1962”

Dumping Nuclear Waste at Sea – Sealift Magazine 1968 MSTS based at Fort Mason San Francisco

The removal of nuclear waste from the B-52 Crash in Thule Greenland where they had military personnel clean up the site after an atomic bomb fell and broke apart spilling its nuclear cargo all over the place. Only one crewman survived but was terribly frost bitten. All of the contaminated materials including ice and snow were removed from the site in these containers as shown above and off loaded at Charleston for burial in the US.

This article points out that 4800 barrels of radioactive waste were also unloaded in Charleston from the Palamedes Spain nuclear disaster where a B-52 carrying 4 hydrogen bombs collided with a tanker in mid air, then exploded and the bombs fell on Spain where one ended up in the Mediterranean while another spilled its contents all over the city, the other two parachuted safely to the surface as that is what was supposed to happen in a crash.

Article on the left details the dumping of nuclear waste at sea as if this is a casual thing to do

Left side United States. Navy. Military Sea Transportation Service. Sealift Magazine. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Navy’s Military Sea Transportation Service , 1968
United States. Navy. Military Sea Transportation Service. Sealift Magazine. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Navy’s Military Sea Transportation Service , 1968

My article on the Farallon Islands Nuclear Waste disposal sites where the Navy dumped 47500 barrels of nuclear waste into Ocean at the Farallon Islands. They just pushed it all overboard and that was that.


I will be posting more articles on Ocean Dumping.

Letter to the Navy in response to August 10 2021 RAB meeting

Dear Ms. Linz:
Can you send this to the meeting members
The Naval Research Laboratory conducted tests using mustard gas at Treasure Island to test the use of Decontamination Solution 2 versus DANC to be used in chemical warfare training on all navy bases. Mustard Gas was plentiful because the Navy was conducting chemical warfare training at Treasure Island.


DANC is tetrachloroethane and RH195 powder which is a very concentrated form of Chlorine. The Navy at the time used the TCE for the tetrachloroethane when today we use it for Trichloroethylene which are both toxic in parts per million. They mixed 25 gallons at a time in metal garbage cans and dumped it directly onto the ground.

These photographs are from that article and their references are linked.

The training manual ABC Warfare Defense 1960 and 1963 were photographed on Treasure Island. You can see Alcatraz and the Golden Gate and the Marin Headlands in the background of the decontamination of the field gun photograph.

DS2 is
70 Percent Diethylenetriamine (DETA
28-percent methyl Cellosolve
2-percent sodium hydroxide by weight, also known as Lye or Caustic Soda.

DS2 was also dumped all over the ground and used on trucks, field guns, and the first USS Pandemonium which was located on Gateway Avenue right about where Kevin Elizabeth Kempf lives.

DS2 was so corrosive it required the repainting of the guns, trucks and vehicles used in the training , hence the need for auto hobby shops and bus painting facilities to repaint them for the next set of students. Later just painting over the vehicles was a way to contain the contamination but this presents a serious problem, what happened to those vehicles?

I have been going through the Navy reports starting with Operation Crossroads where on December 10, 1946 the Navy admitted to dumping radioactive sand from sand blasting and the radioactive acid from cleaning the pipes of the ships contaminated at the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll directly into San Francisco Bay and the order was given for all bays and harbors on the west coast and the Pacific making sure to not inform the barges that the content was radioactive so as to not cause a panic and in the process exposed the ecosystem to the contaminants directly.


Code 180 A

Bureau of Ships
Washington 25, D.C.

10 December 1946


Subject: Conference on Radiological Safety; Report of.
Time: 0910, 27 November 1946.
Place: Navy Department, Bureau of Ships Room T3-2703.

Present: R.Adm.SOLBERG (BuShips) Col. NICHOLS (ManhatDist)
Capt. MAXWELL (BuShips) Col. ROPER (ManhatDist)
Cdr. REE (BuShips) Col. FIELDS (ManhatDist)
Cdr. HOFFMAN (BuShips ) Col. COONEY (RadSafe)
WesCoRep.) Capt.LYON (BuMed)
Cdr. LANGER (BuShips) Dr. HAMILTON (Univ.Calif)
Cdr. HAWES (BuShips)

So you see you should be looking for more chemicals and radiation in the Bay and on Treasure Island. The Army did it right and published their decontamination of the Edgewood Arsenal that also conducted the same training. You can learn from them! They did this with the EPA.

DTSC says that Treasure Island is unique for people living on a radiation site. It is unique to the DTSC but the EPA has 40 years of experience cleaning up nuclear radiation with people living on the site and you know what they did, they evacuated them!

I have been documenting the USNRDL technical reports where they were charged with decontamination of radiation in live fire incidents where the Navy purposely contaminated areas in Hunters Point Shipyard, Treasure Island, San Bruno and Camp Stoneman (Pittsburg CA) and Camp Parks (Dublin CA). The reports span the foundation of the lab all the way up to the late 1960s when the shipyard was determining the effect of sea water at depth on the SNAP portable nuclear reactors which were used in spacecraft (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo as well as satellites) and since the Navy was testing them at depth I am guessing sonar buoys?

Quite frankly I cannot see how you can justify placing people onto these sites.

There is a list of chemicals that were listed on site T117 in the Baseline report from 1994 and here is the link. The city placed the Treasure Island Skatepark between the Hazardous waste facility for Treasure Island when it was a base and the Radium Vault located on the other side of the building that forms the south wall of the skatepark. (between 343 and 342) You could not have picked a worse location for kids and young adults.


Your contractors who are sampling the locations need to know that this history has taken place and adjust their sampling methods to search for this contamination and to warn them for their own personal safety of the types of contaminants present. One thing that needs to be said, and that is the people on the ground who are cleaning this up and the TIDA Members, the Navy, the staff and officials at City Hall, anyone who has stepped foot on these bases has been contaminated. It is not just the residents. So for your own health you need to investigate further before you subject 20000 more people to the contamination.

James Pepper