REM and Curie Measurements


The maximum safe level of radiation for Member of the Public for a year is 100 mrems per year which is:

0.1 rem per year
100 mrems per year
100,000 microrems per year (which is 100,000 µrem)

The maximum safe level of radiation for anyone including radiation workers for an hour is 2 mrems per hour

.0002rems/hrrems per hour
2mrems/hrmillirems per hour
2,000µrem/hrmicrorems per hour
Note in the POST-CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY REPORT the Navy use mR/hr to denote microrems. In other reports they denoted it properly.

The Navy in its spreadsheet listing the radioactive foils used the wrong symbol for microrems. The Navy used mR/h for microrems per hour. The proper symbol is µrem/hr and I will use them in the tables below

There is no safe level for handling radioactive objects with your bare hands, if you pick one up, or come not contact with any radioactive substance there is a risk.

This is particularly important as the radioactive objects found on Treasure island were either thin foils of radioactive materials or objects painted with radium paint. These objects have since rusted away and can be picked up on the wind, so everyone within 4 miles of the island can be exposed to the radiation as it travels in the dust on the wind.

Map showing EPA Distances for exposure for Treasure Island, Fort Mason, the Navy Dispensary on Fell Street and Hunters Point Shipyard. The red lines are 4 miles,, the blue-green is 3 miles, the White is 3 miles and the red is one mile. Note Fell Street’s 1 mile radium is in yellow to denote near neighbors to the Radiation site. All of these sites are nuclear radiation sites in San Francisco. City hall is within range of the Naval Dispensary on Fell Street.

Calculating the Maximum Amount of Radiation for a Member of the Public for a year for an hour.

There are 8760 hours in a year and the people who live on the island, live there all year, so to calculate the hourly rate of a safe dose for a year you get:

100 mrems per year divided by 8760 (hours in a year) comes out to a little over 0.0114 mrems/hr.

I am rounding off to make this easier for everyone to figure out. The real number is 0.0114155251141553

So any radiation amount that is more than 0.0114 mrems per hour will exceed the safe maximum level of radiation for individual members of the public in a year.

0.0114 mrems per hour is:

Amount NumberSymbolName
0.0000114 rems/hrrems per hour
0.0114mrems/hrmillirems per hour
11.4µrem/hr microrems per hour
Note in the POST-CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY REPORT the Navy use mR/hr to denote microrems. In other reports they denoted it properly.

So if you compare the radiation levels for each object in the POST-CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY REPORT December 2019. Table 7 lists the Radium objects in this report on pages 163-185. you can see that the objects listed are below the immediate danger level of 2 mrems per hour so the people will not get radiation sickness. But about 86 of them exceed the yearly dose rate per hour and because each object adds to the total amount of radiation, the people of Treasure Island were exposed to over 60 REMS of nuclear radiation for each year and that is a nuclear accident!

The Navy found these objects in 2013 and placed them in boxes to store them underground instead of removing them when they found the danger. They were required by law to remove them when they found them.

Why didn’t they remove the danger to the residents?

Problem is that radiation goes right through the ground and so the Navy needlessly exposed the residents to this radiation for 5 years until they dug it up and removed it in 2018. See my article

But Wait There’s More:

3.5 mrems per hour which is 30 REMS PER YEAR from Anomaly A-G03/A-CDPH 1303A reported May 26, 2021

Here are the Curie tables based on one Curie of radiation

1Ci/gCurie per gram
1,000mCi/gmillicuries per gram
1,000,000µCi/g microcuries per gram
1,000,000,000nCi/gnanocuries per gram
1,000,000,000,000pCi/gpicocuries per gram
The safe level of radiation for the cleanup is 1.69 pCi/g

The following report and description of the radiological area has a number of objects, I am posting one of them in this article, there are more that also exceed safe levels (one is 49.5 pCi/g found 16 inches below the housing) and the Navy found them in 2013 and have left them there to irradiate the people on treasure Island all of these years. Note they were there for decades but when they knew it was radioactive, they did not start to remove it until 2021. Again I ask Why because they knowingly allowed these people to be exposed to the radiation! That’s murder.

Intrusive Investigation – Radiological Areas of Interest
May 2021
p 2-2

“Anomaly A-G03/A-CDPH 1303A – Sample location 1303A lies near a concrete walkway adjacent to Building 1303. In March 2013, small discrete particles (3,500 mR/hr. on contact) were collected by CDPH during pre-remediation soil sampling and sent to the Drinking Water and Radiation Laboratory Branch (DWRLB) for analysis. The radioactive fragments were sieved out of the soil sample during sample preparation. CDPH also collected soil samples prior to, during, and after remediation activities. The post-remediation 226Ra sample result (i.e., soil sample collected from the bottom of the excavation) was 1.02 pCi/g (CDPH, 2013). However, during a subsequent investigation conducted in October 2013, LLRO #1282 was found and retrieved and a soil sample collected from the same location detected 226Ra concentrations of 2.2 pCi/g, which is above the NSTI screening criteria of 1.69 pCi/g.”

226Ra is Radium226

1.69 pCi/g is 1.69 picocuries per gram the following tables shows the equivalent amounts:

0.00000000000169Ci/gcuries per gram
0.00000000169mCi/gmillicuries per gram
0.00000169µCi/g microcuries per gram
.00169nCi/gnanocuries per gram
1.69pCi/gpicocuries per gram
The safe level of radiation for the cleanup is 1.69 pCi/g

So if you apply this to the foils of radiation used at the US Treasury/ATF building that was located at Avenue M and Fourth Street in Building 233 at Treasure Island, the NRC noted a violation on the storage and leak checking of radioactive foils made of radioactive Tritium and radioactive Nickle.63 They range from 15 to 6,000 millicuries of radiation.

The 6000 millicuries is 6 Curies of Radiation and was used in the Sentex Sensing Technology, Inc. Model 50319 Detector Cell with each foil measuring 150 millicuries of radiation but the device used 40 of them.

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission noted many violations on Treasure island. In this case it was violation from 6/23/1987 which was for not leak checking the radiation in these devices and receiving radioactive foils that were not meant to be shipped to them. The ATF had two labs, one in Rockville MD and the other at Treasure Island.

Note that this license was being evaluated while the Navy was writing the 1988 Radiological Survey report for the EPA. No mention of the long term radioactive materials. Nickel63 has a half life of 100.1 years while Tritium has a half life of 12.3 years.

So 150 millicuries of radiation is equivalent to these amounts:

0.150Ci/gcuries per gram
150mCi/gmillicuries per gram
150,000µCi/g microcuries per gram
150,000,000nCi/gnanocuries per gram
150,000,000,000pCi/gpicocuries per gram
The safe level of radiation for the cleanup is 1.69 pCi/g

The Navy underrated the level of contamination in 2013 saying it was safe leaving it there to contaminate the residents when later on they found it exceeded the safe levels of radiation.

So there are four issues here that affects both lists of radiological objects found, and remember this is just two reports, there are more reports of objects found that have to be added to the total amount of radiation on the island:

1. They found radiation in 2013 and did not dig it up until now thus exposing the residents to radiation for years and that exposure is at least 90 REMS per year, a nuclear accident.
2. The Navy admits that they goofed up when they first measured the radiation in 2013, reporting it far less than what it actually is today, so that puts into question the amounts of radiation of all radiation readings on the island.
3. The levels of radiation exceed the safe levels of 100 mrems per year and 2 mrems per hour making the site a nuclear disaster site.
4. These radioactive objects were found buried with bombs and ammunition so if a bomb blows up, the radiation gets spread over a large area in the wind.

The City needs to evacuate these people immediately and stop all construction on the island, because to place people to live there is murder.

ATF San Francisco Field Laboratory at Treasure Island radioactive foils

Hydrogen3 is Tritium

Stanford Environmental and Health and Safety
Princeton report on how Geiger Counters can’t detect it.

1401 Research Boulevard
Rockville, Maryland 20850
April 29, 1987

Refer to

United States Nuclear Regulatory
Commission – Region 1
631 Park Avenue
King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406


This is a formal request for amending our existing materials license 119833-01. Proposed amendments are listed below:

  1. Nickel63 foil contained in a VICTOREEN INSTRUMENT-model #4008-4-15 located in room 167 ATF National Laboratory Center facility. Rockville, Maryland will be transferred to our San Francisco Field Laboratory 233 Naval Station, Treasure Island. California.
  2. This laboratory System is also in the process of finalizing the purchase of an explosives detector manufactured by SENTEX SENSING TECHNOLOGY. INC. (Scanex. jr.-Serial a1 # 60K-139 containing Hydrogen3 Titanium Tritide foils safety light-model #508-3). which will also be located at the San Francisco Field Laboratory. Note conditions of existing license regarding instrumentation located at our Rockville and Treasure Island Laboratory facilities. Please find enclosed copy of existing license # 1918331-01.

Sincerely Yours,
William D. Kinard
Forensic Chemist