Chemical Warfare Service founding members of Chemical Warfare Association 1946

Chemical Corps Journal Vol 1 No. 1 August 1946
This is the first issue of the Chemical Corps Journal which would later be named the Armed Forces Chemical Journal and they list the founding members who supplied the chemical warfare service during World War II. The journal over the years have ads for companies that participated in the Development of Chemical and Biological Warfare.
Merck in Rahway is among them.

Agawam Dye Works, Inc., Lawrence MA
American Cyanamid Co., 30 Rockefeller Plaza NY NY (RCA building NBC is located on that site)
The Barneby-Cheney Engineering Co., Columbus, OH
The Bell Machine Co., Oshkosh, WI
Buffalo Electro-Chemical Co., Inc. Buffalo NY
Celanese Corp of America, NY NY
Chicago Eye Shield Co., Chicago IL
Day and Night Manufacturing Co;, Monrovia CA
Doehler-Jarvis Corp, NY NY
Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI
Dryden Rubber Co., Chicago IL
E I Dupont De Nemours & Co.., Inc., Wilmington DE
Electromaster, Inc., Detroit MI
Empire Stove Co., Belleville IL
Federal Laboratories, Pittsburg PA
Fencil, Wm., Co., Huntley IL
Firestone Rubber & Latex Products Co., Fall River MA
Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. Akron OH
Fraser and Johson Co., San Francisco CA
General Dyestuff Corp., NY NY
General Tire & Rubber Co., Wabash IN
Handy & Harman, NY NY
Hell Co., Milwaukee WI
Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington DE
Heyden Chemical Corp NY NY
Hub Hosiery Mills, Lowell MA
Hooker Electrochemical Co., Niagara Falls NY
Industrial Rubber Goods Co., St Louis MO
Merck & Company, Rahway NJ
Mineapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co., Minneapolis MN
Monsanto Chemical Co. St Louis MO
National Fireworks, Inc,. West Hanover MA
National Magnesium Corp. of MD., NY NY
Niagara Alkali Co., NY NY
Pemco Corp, Baltimore MD
Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co., Philadelphia PA
Pilcher, J. V. Mfg., Co., Pittsburg PA
Raymond Laboratories, Inc., St Paul, MN
Scovil Manufacturing Co., Waterbury CN
Standard Products Co., Detroit MI
Standard Oil Development Co., NY NY
Stauffer Chemical Co., NY NY
Victor Chemical Works, Chicago, IL
Vulcan Copper & Supply Co., Cinncinnati, OH
Wallace & Tiernan Products, Inc., Belleville NJ
Westvaco Chlorine Products Co., NY NY
World Steel Products Corp., NY NY
Wyandotte Chemicals Co., Wyandotte MI
Zaremba Co., Buffalo NY


1946 Chemical Warfare Training and Radium Plaque Adaptometer course Schedules at Treasure Island and the Navy

Naval Training Bulletin 1946-47
This article will list the courses published in the Naval Training Bulletin for Chemical Warfare and Radium Plaque Adaptometer at Treasure Island Navy Base, which is also the 12th Naval Naval District Command and Naval Schools Command. I will present Treasure Island first and then the rest of the Navy so you can see which Districts specialized in this training over time.

The Radium Plaque Adaptometer was a device where a radium source was placed within 10 inches of the eyes in order to test the ability of the sailor to see at night. Radium causes phosphur to illuminate at very dim levels that cannot be replicated with light bulbs. They conducted this test on all Navy personnel from 1944 to 1951 thus exposing them to intense radiation.

Treasure Island February 15, 1946: Chemical Warfare and Radium Plaque Adaptometer

Naval Training Bulletin 15 Feb 1946

Boston – Chemical Warfare School – Feb 1946

Brooklyn – Chemical Warfare and Radium Plaque Adaptometer – Feb 1946

Continue reading “1946 Chemical Warfare Training and Radium Plaque Adaptometer course Schedules at Treasure Island and the Navy”

Chemical Warfare Weapons of the US from US Naval Training Bulletin March 1944

The US had chemical weapons ready to be used in retaliation to any German or Japanese chemical or biological warfare attack. We had various types of weapons shown in thsi chart from March 1944 Naval Training Bulletin.

Source” Naval Training Bulletin 15 March 1944

Naval Training Bulletin 15 March 1944
Continue reading “Chemical Warfare Weapons of the US from US Naval Training Bulletin March 1944”

Safety levels of nuclear radiation have changed over the years making previous cleanups are now nuclear accidents

When the government says that a site was cleaned up in the past, remember that the safety standards of the time are nuclear accidents today. It depends on when it was cleaned up. For instance the Nuclear Fuel Rod plant in San Jose was cleaned up to mid 1950s standards when the Atomic Energy Commission was worried about people getting Radiation Poisoniing and not the long term effects of cancer. It is now The Plant shopping center and it has to be re-evaluated for contamination. All of these sites have to be re-examined to determine if people are in danger!

10 CFR § 20.1301 – Dose limits for individual members of the public.
§ 20.1301 Dose limits for individual members of the public.



Admiral B A Clarey NAVFAC gave order in 1972 to remove radium dials from ships

Radiological Precautions
The Navy Civil Engineer
Spring 1972, p. 16

By GLENN ZIMMER Radiological Safety Officer

“Radiological Precautions” By GLENN ZIMMER Radiological Safety Officer The Navy Civil Engineer Spring 1972, p 16

The Radiological Affairs Support Program has been established by the Chief of Naval Material within the Naval Facilities Engineering Command. The CNM has assigned Commander, NAVFAC, the responsibility to act for CNM in matters of radiological affairs. This covers all aspects of ionizing radiation except nuclear propulsion, nuclear weapon criticality, and medical applications within the NMC to, in the words of Adm. B. A. Clarey, “collate, coordinate and monitor — all aspects of radiological controls—.”

Part of this program will be to assure that a uniform program of radiological protection is established within all systems commands, with assistance to the fleets on an “as-required” basis.

Focus Responsibility

Up until now there has not been a coordinated radiological program within the Navy. This has led to conflicting regulations in some cases that has ended with confusion and a lack of control. The aim is to bring central coordination to radiological affairs so that the Navy can assure radiation protection of all personnel within the Navy, and of the environment. This program will include radioactive materials that are used under license authority of the Atomic Energy Commission, those occurring naturally (such as radium), and X-rays.

Heretofore, radium has not been controlled within the Navy, primarily because the use of radium has not been regulated by the Atomic Energy Commission, the U.S. Public Health Service, or any other agency. However, radium is just as harmful as other radioactive materials which have been produced in a reactor, and a control program will be brought into effect on this material.

Industrial use of X-rays is another area that will require attention and control. In the past there has not been a program at all locations for controlling the use of X-rays.

There are needs within the Navy to have instrumentation developed for monitoring to help assure radiological safety. Recommendations will be made from NAVFAC to the appropriate naval activities responsible for development of instrumentation or control procedures.

One of the important reasons for having this program is that it is necessary in the field of radiation protection to have technically-qualified personnel evaluate hazards to personnel and to devise control measures. NAVFAC has a small group of highly-qualified, highly-technical personnel in headquarters and at the Naval Nuclear Power Unit to perform this type of a function.

By having a single central office coordinating radiological affairs and providing technical assistance we can assure radiological control and protection. It is a tremendous responsibility and opportunity for NAVFAC to have been selected to perform this type of a function, because the program is of major importance to the Fleet, and the Navy.

Radiological Precautions
The Navy Civil Engineer
Spring 1975, p. 14

Radiological Precautions” The Navy Civil Engineer Spring 1975, p. 14

Radiological Training Begun • Ft Belvoir, Va.
In June, 1974, the OIC, Naval Nuclear Power Unit (NNPU) was tasked by Commander, Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), with providing radiological training within the U. S. Navy. The Radiological Training Department (RTD) was es- tablished in July, 1974, with the addition of two Medical Service Corps instructor billets from the Chief of Naval Education and Training.

The initial training effort was directed toward the radium removal operations program for inactive Naval vessels. Responsibility for this course was transferred to NNPU following the decommissioning of the Navy Training Unit, Fort McClellan, Ala. The need was established when it was found that many luminescent devices aboard decommissioned ships contained radium in quantities considered excessive and potentially dangerous.

These devices must be removed and properly disposed of prior to transfer of the vessel. The radium removal operations course is designed to enable inactive fleet maintenance personnel to safely locate, remove, and dispose of radioactive materials found aboard inactive ships. Three such courses were conducted in July and August of 1974 with 48 students becoming certified as radium removal operators.

A parallel radium removal course for active ships was then designed in an effort to remove items containing radium from the active fleet and replace them with non-hazardous substitutes. Shore based teams of mainte- nance support personnel have been trained as radium removal operators in an effort to prevent the additional work load from being assigned to shipboard personnel.

Removal and disposal procedures are, therefore, centralized in major home ports where they can be more easily monitored and controlled. Commanding officers can schedule surveys for their ships by submitting a standard work request to the Fleet Main- tenance Assistance Group located in their home port.

The surveys will then be conducted during a convenient in-port period. To date, one course has been conducted on each coast, and radium removal teams are now established in Norfolk, Charleston, Mayport, San Diego, San Francisco, and Pearl Harbor.

Training department personnel have recently completed a nuclear weapons radiological survey operations course – which will enable personnel to conduct radiological surveys in weapons storage areas in ships or shore facilities. Students will learn how to evaluate survey data and determine what actions are necessary in order to ensure current personnel radiation protection standards are met. Classes began in April, 1975, with training being conducted at the Nuclear Weapons Training Groups in Norfolk, Va. Diego, Calif.

Future plans include development and San of a radiation safety officer (RSO) : course which will meet training requirements for individuals filling RS0 billets throughout the Navy. The Course will be approximately two weeks in length and will cover a wide range of subjects including the detection of ionizing radiation, personnel protection measures, the development of standard operating procedures including those for X and gamma ray radiography, and rules and regulations pertaining to radiation sources licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.


Dumping Nuclear Waste at Sea – Sealift Magazine 1968 MSTS based at Fort Mason San Francisco

The removal of nuclear waste from the B-52 Crash in Thule Greenland where they had military personnel clean up the site after an atomic bomb fell and broke apart spilling its nuclear cargo all over the place. Only one crewman survived but was terribly frost bitten. All of the contaminated materials including ice and snow were removed from the site in these containers as shown above and off loaded at Charleston for burial in the US.

This article points out that 4800 barrels of radioactive waste were also unloaded in Charleston from the Palamedes Spain nuclear disaster where a B-52 carrying 4 hydrogen bombs collided with a tanker in mid air, then exploded and the bombs fell on Spain where one ended up in the Mediterranean while another spilled its contents all over the city, the other two parachuted safely to the surface as that is what was supposed to happen in a crash.

Article on the left details the dumping of nuclear waste at sea as if this is a casual thing to do

Left side United States. Navy. Military Sea Transportation Service. Sealift Magazine. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Navy’s Military Sea Transportation Service , 1968
United States. Navy. Military Sea Transportation Service. Sealift Magazine. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Navy’s Military Sea Transportation Service , 1968

My article on the Farallon Islands Nuclear Waste disposal sites where the Navy dumped 47500 barrels of nuclear waste into Ocean at the Farallon Islands. They just pushed it all overboard and that was that.

I will be posting more articles on Ocean Dumping.


REM and Curie Measurements


The maximum safe level of radiation for Member of the Public for a year is 100 mrems per year which is:

0.1 rem per year
100 mrems per year
100,000 microrems per year (which is 100,000 µrem)

The maximum safe level of radiation for anyone including radiation workers for an hour is 2 mrems per hour

.0002rems/hrrems per hour
2mrems/hrmillirems per hour
2,000µrem/hrmicrorems per hour
Note in the POST-CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY REPORT the Navy use mR/hr to denote microrems. In other reports they denoted it properly.

The Navy in its spreadsheet listing the radioactive foils used the wrong symbol for microrems. The Navy used mR/h for microrems per hour. The proper symbol is µrem/hr and I will use them in the tables below

There is no safe level for handling radioactive objects with your bare hands, if you pick one up, or come not contact with any radioactive substance there is a risk.

This is particularly important as the radioactive objects found on Treasure island were either thin foils of radioactive materials or objects painted with radium paint. These objects have since rusted away and can be picked up on the wind, so everyone within 4 miles of the island can be exposed to the radiation as it travels in the dust on the wind.

Map showing EPA Distances for exposure for Treasure Island, Fort Mason, the Navy Dispensary on Fell Street and Hunters Point Shipyard. The red lines are 4 miles,, the blue-green is 3 miles, the White is 3 miles and the red is one mile. Note Fell Street’s 1 mile radium is in yellow to denote near neighbors to the Radiation site. All of these sites are nuclear radiation sites in San Francisco. City hall is within range of the Naval Dispensary on Fell Street.

Calculating the Maximum Amount of Radiation for a Member of the Public for a year for an hour.

There are 8760 hours in a year and the people who live on the island, live there all year, so to calculate the hourly rate of a safe dose for a year you get:

100 mrems per year divided by 8760 (hours in a year) comes out to a little over 0.0114 mrems/hr.

I am rounding off to make this easier for everyone to figure out. The real number is 0.0114155251141553

So any radiation amount that is more than 0.0114 mrems per hour will exceed the safe maximum level of radiation for individual members of the public in a year.

0.0114 mrems per hour is:

Amount NumberSymbolName
0.0000114 rems/hrrems per hour
0.0114mrems/hrmillirems per hour
11.4µrem/hr microrems per hour
Note in the POST-CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY REPORT the Navy use mR/hr to denote microrems. In other reports they denoted it properly.

So if you compare the radiation levels for each object in the POST-CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY REPORT December 2019. Table 7 lists the Radium objects in this report on pages 163-185. you can see that the objects listed are below the immediate danger level of 2 mrems per hour so the people will not get radiation sickness. But about 86 of them exceed the yearly dose rate per hour and because each object adds to the total amount of radiation, the people of Treasure Island were exposed to over 60 REMS of nuclear radiation for each year and that is a nuclear accident!

The Navy found these objects in 2013 and placed them in boxes to store them underground instead of removing them when they found the danger. They were required by law to remove them when they found them.

Why didn’t they remove the danger to the residents?

Problem is that radiation goes right through the ground and so the Navy needlessly exposed the residents to this radiation for 5 years until they dug it up and removed it in 2018. See my article

But Wait There’s More:

3.5 mrems per hour which is 30 REMS PER YEAR from Anomaly A-G03/A-CDPH 1303A reported May 26, 2021

Here are the Curie tables based on one Curie of radiation

1Ci/gCurie per gram
1,000mCi/gmillicuries per gram
1,000,000µCi/g microcuries per gram
1,000,000,000nCi/gnanocuries per gram
1,000,000,000,000pCi/gpicocuries per gram
The safe level of radiation for the cleanup is 1.69 pCi/g

The following report and description of the radiological area has a number of objects, I am posting one of them in this article, there are more that also exceed safe levels (one is 49.5 pCi/g found 16 inches below the housing) and the Navy found them in 2013 and have left them there to irradiate the people on treasure Island all of these years. Note they were there for decades but when they knew it was radioactive, they did not start to remove it until 2021. Again I ask Why because they knowingly allowed these people to be exposed to the radiation! That’s murder.

Intrusive Investigation – Radiological Areas of Interest
May 2021
p 2-2

“Anomaly A-G03/A-CDPH 1303A – Sample location 1303A lies near a concrete walkway adjacent to Building 1303. In March 2013, small discrete particles (3,500 mR/hr. on contact) were collected by CDPH during pre-remediation soil sampling and sent to the Drinking Water and Radiation Laboratory Branch (DWRLB) for analysis. The radioactive fragments were sieved out of the soil sample during sample preparation. CDPH also collected soil samples prior to, during, and after remediation activities. The post-remediation 226Ra sample result (i.e., soil sample collected from the bottom of the excavation) was 1.02 pCi/g (CDPH, 2013). However, during a subsequent investigation conducted in October 2013, LLRO #1282 was found and retrieved and a soil sample collected from the same location detected 226Ra concentrations of 2.2 pCi/g, which is above the NSTI screening criteria of 1.69 pCi/g.”

226Ra is Radium226

1.69 pCi/g is 1.69 picocuries per gram the following tables shows the equivalent amounts:

0.00000000000169Ci/gcuries per gram
0.00000000169mCi/gmillicuries per gram
0.00000169µCi/g microcuries per gram
.00169nCi/gnanocuries per gram
1.69pCi/gpicocuries per gram
The safe level of radiation for the cleanup is 1.69 pCi/g

So if you apply this to the foils of radiation used at the US Treasury/ATF building that was located at Avenue M and Fourth Street in Building 233 at Treasure Island, the NRC noted a violation on the storage and leak checking of radioactive foils made of radioactive Tritium and radioactive Nickle.63 They range from 15 to 6,000 millicuries of radiation.

The 6000 millicuries is 6 Curies of Radiation and was used in the Sentex Sensing Technology, Inc. Model 50319 Detector Cell with each foil measuring 150 millicuries of radiation but the device used 40 of them.

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission noted many violations on Treasure island. In this case it was violation from 6/23/1987 which was for not leak checking the radiation in these devices and receiving radioactive foils that were not meant to be shipped to them. The ATF had two labs, one in Rockville MD and the other at Treasure Island.

Note that this license was being evaluated while the Navy was writing the 1988 Radiological Survey report for the EPA. No mention of the long term radioactive materials. Nickel63 has a half life of 100.1 years while Tritium has a half life of 12.3 years.

So 150 millicuries of radiation is equivalent to these amounts:

0.150Ci/gcuries per gram
150mCi/gmillicuries per gram
150,000µCi/g microcuries per gram
150,000,000nCi/gnanocuries per gram
150,000,000,000pCi/gpicocuries per gram
The safe level of radiation for the cleanup is 1.69 pCi/g

The Navy underrated the level of contamination in 2013 saying it was safe leaving it there to contaminate the residents when later on they found it exceeded the safe levels of radiation.

So there are four issues here that affects both lists of radiological objects found, and remember this is just two reports, there are more reports of objects found that have to be added to the total amount of radiation on the island:

1. They found radiation in 2013 and did not dig it up until now thus exposing the residents to radiation for years and that exposure is at least 90 REMS per year, a nuclear accident.
2. The Navy admits that they goofed up when they first measured the radiation in 2013, reporting it far less than what it actually is today, so that puts into question the amounts of radiation of all radiation readings on the island.
3. The levels of radiation exceed the safe levels of 100 mrems per year and 2 mrems per hour making the site a nuclear disaster site.
4. These radioactive objects were found buried with bombs and ammunition so if a bomb blows up, the radiation gets spread over a large area in the wind.

The City needs to evacuate these people immediately and stop all construction on the island, because to place people to live there is murder.

Letter to the Navy in response to August 10 2021 RAB meeting

Dear Ms. Linz:
Can you send this to the meeting members
The Naval Research Laboratory conducted tests using mustard gas at Treasure Island to test the use of Decontamination Solution 2 versus DANC to be used in chemical warfare training on all navy bases. Mustard Gas was plentiful because the Navy was conducting chemical warfare training at Treasure Island.

DANC is tetrachloroethane and RH195 powder which is a very concentrated form of Chlorine. The Navy at the time used the TCE for the tetrachloroethane when today we use it for Trichloroethylene which are both toxic in parts per million. They mixed 25 gallons at a time in metal garbage cans and dumped it directly onto the ground.

These photographs are from that article and their references are linked.

The training manual ABC Warfare Defense 1960 and 1963 were photographed on Treasure Island. You can see Alcatraz and the Golden Gate and the Marin Headlands in the background of the decontamination of the field gun photograph.

DS2 is
70 Percent Diethylenetriamine (DETA
28-percent methyl Cellosolve
2-percent sodium hydroxide by weight, also known as Lye or Caustic Soda.

DS2 was also dumped all over the ground and used on trucks, field guns, and the first USS Pandemonium which was located on Gateway Avenue right about where Kevin Elizabeth Kempf lives.

DS2 was so corrosive it required the repainting of the guns, trucks and vehicles used in the training , hence the need for auto hobby shops and bus painting facilities to repaint them for the next set of students. Later just painting over the vehicles was a way to contain the contamination but this presents a serious problem, what happened to those vehicles?

I have been going through the Navy reports starting with Operation Crossroads where on December 10, 1946 the Navy admitted to dumping radioactive sand from sand blasting and the radioactive acid from cleaning the pipes of the ships contaminated at the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll directly into San Francisco Bay and the order was given for all bays and harbors on the west coast and the Pacific making sure to not inform the barges that the content was radioactive so as to not cause a panic and in the process exposed the ecosystem to the contaminants directly.

Code 180 A

Bureau of Ships
Washington 25, D.C.

10 December 1946


Subject: Conference on Radiological Safety; Report of.
Time: 0910, 27 November 1946.
Place: Navy Department, Bureau of Ships Room T3-2703.

Present: R.Adm.SOLBERG (BuShips) Col. NICHOLS (ManhatDist)
Capt. MAXWELL (BuShips) Col. ROPER (ManhatDist)
Cdr. REE (BuShips) Col. FIELDS (ManhatDist)
Cdr. HOFFMAN (BuShips ) Col. COONEY (RadSafe)
WesCoRep.) Capt.LYON (BuMed)
Cdr. LANGER (BuShips) Dr. HAMILTON (Univ.Calif)
Cdr. HAWES (BuShips)

So you see you should be looking for more chemicals and radiation in the Bay and on Treasure Island. The Army did it right and published their decontamination of the Edgewood Arsenal that also conducted the same training. You can learn from them! They did this with the EPA.

DTSC says that Treasure Island is unique for people living on a radiation site. It is unique to the DTSC but the EPA has 40 years of experience cleaning up nuclear radiation with people living on the site and you know what they did, they evacuated them!

I have been documenting the USNRDL technical reports where they were charged with decontamination of radiation in live fire incidents where the Navy purposely contaminated areas in Hunters Point Shipyard, Treasure Island, San Bruno and Camp Stoneman (Pittsburg CA) and Camp Parks (Dublin CA). The reports span the foundation of the lab all the way up to the late 1960s when the shipyard was determining the effect of sea water at depth on the SNAP portable nuclear reactors which were used in spacecraft (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo as well as satellites) and since the Navy was testing them at depth I am guessing sonar buoys?

Quite frankly I cannot see how you can justify placing people onto these sites.

There is a list of chemicals that were listed on site T117 in the Baseline report from 1994 and here is the link. The city placed the Treasure Island Skatepark between the Hazardous waste facility for Treasure Island when it was a base and the Radium Vault located on the other side of the building that forms the south wall of the skatepark. (between 343 and 342) You could not have picked a worse location for kids and young adults.

Your contractors who are sampling the locations need to know that this history has taken place and adjust their sampling methods to search for this contamination and to warn them for their own personal safety of the types of contaminants present. One thing that needs to be said, and that is the people on the ground who are cleaning this up and the TIDA Members, the Navy, the staff and officials at City Hall, anyone who has stepped foot on these bases has been contaminated. It is not just the residents. So for your own health you need to investigate further before you subject 20000 more people to the contamination.

James Pepper

ATF San Francisco Field Laboratory at Treasure Island radioactive foils

Hydrogen3 is Tritium

Stanford Environmental and Health and Safety
Princeton report on how Geiger Counters can’t detect it.

1401 Research Boulevard
Rockville, Maryland 20850
April 29, 1987

Refer to

United States Nuclear Regulatory
Commission – Region 1
631 Park Avenue
King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406


This is a formal request for amending our existing materials license 119833-01. Proposed amendments are listed below:

  1. Nickel63 foil contained in a VICTOREEN INSTRUMENT-model #4008-4-15 located in room 167 ATF National Laboratory Center facility. Rockville, Maryland will be transferred to our San Francisco Field Laboratory 233 Naval Station, Treasure Island. California.
  2. This laboratory System is also in the process of finalizing the purchase of an explosives detector manufactured by SENTEX SENSING TECHNOLOGY. INC. (Scanex. jr.-Serial a1 # 60K-139 containing Hydrogen3 Titanium Tritide foils safety light-model #508-3). which will also be located at the San Francisco Field Laboratory. Note conditions of existing license regarding instrumentation located at our Rockville and Treasure Island Laboratory facilities. Please find enclosed copy of existing license # 1918331-01.

Sincerely Yours,
William D. Kinard
Forensic Chemist