I will be adding content to this as there are many training manuals and I will provide links to those online. I have to go through all ofthem. Here are some relating directly to Treasure Island, indicated in the documents.
Photographed on Treasure Island. Notice the Marine Headlands in the background and Alcatraz Island. This is near the Arsenic bubble that the Navy had to clean up , it would be in this picture behind and to the right and right next to the mock up ship the USS Pandemonium.
1978 Environmental Impact Statement for the Army to build a brand new Chemical, Biological and Radiological Training Facility with references to the training at Treasure Island. These are the Course instructions, how they did it, what they measured out, etc. using Uranium and/or Plutonium in these exerices.
1978 Environmental Impact Statement for the Army to build a brand new Chemical, Biological and Radiological Training Facility with references to the training at Treasure Island. These are the Course instructions, how they did it, what they measured out, etc.
Similar facilities are in this articleon Treasure Island.
When the government says that a site was cleaned up in the past, remember that the safety standards of the time are nuclear accidents today. It depends on when it was cleaned up. For instance the Nuclear Fuel Rod plant in San Jose was cleaned up to mid 1950s standards when the Atomic Energy Commission was worried about people getting Radiation Poisoniing and not the long term effects of cancer. It is now The Plant shopping center and it has to be re-evaluated for contamination. All of these sites have to be re-examined to determine if people are in danger!
(2) The dose in any unrestricted area from external sources, exclusive of the dose contributions from patients administered radioactive material and released in accordance with § 35.75, does not exceed 0.002 rem (0.02 millisievert) in any one hour.
(b) If the licensee permits members of the public to have access to controlled areas, the limits for members of the public continue to apply to those individuals.
Note that cleanup of nuclear materials before 1959 was concerned with preventing radiation sickness but when people started to develop cancer, the standards changed drastically. So sites cleaned up even a few years ago, including Treasure Island where the standards of the time exceed the safe levels today. This is a preliminary list, there are more.
this is alicense amednment which lists the qualifications of a resume for Dr. Edward A. Weck, Head, Molecular Genetics Research which lists his Radiological work at Stauffer Chemical.
Additional industrial experience was gained at Stauffer Chemical Co., Richmond, CA from February 1985 through March 1987 where I served as Assistant Radiation Safety Officer. We had annual presentations on the safe use of radioactivity from our local health physicist and from a New England Nuclear consultant. I worked with 32P and 35S and was responsible with organizing removal of radioactive waste by US Ecology of Hayward, CA.
Stauffer Chemical (now Astra Zeneca) had a uranium processing mill in Richmond CA. This is the Atomic Energy Commission license to process and cut uranium for use in Nuclear Weapons. I am placing this article on my Treasure Island page as Stauffer Chemical Company was a supplier for the US Chemical Warfare Service in World War II and after and Treasure Island conducted training using Mustard Gas, a poison gas which was outlawed in the Treaty of Versailles.
Stauffer Chemical Company was immediately to the East of what is now the UC Berkeley Richmond Field Station, which also includes the US EPA Field Laboratory for Region 9 which encompasses California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, the Pacific Islands and Native American toxic waste sites. It is also less than a mile from the California Department of Public Health and all of these locations are within contamination range of the site. Nuclear radatiion can affect lab equipment.
Atomic Biological and Chemcial Warfare course at Treasure Island.
U.S. Naval Hospital in Oakland US Naval Biological Laboratory at the Naval Supply Center in Oakland UC Radiations Laboratory at Donner Laboratory on the UC campus General Electrics PG&E Atomic Reactor at Pleasanton US Naval Radiological Laboratory at Hunters Point.
The First USS Pandemonium, a mock up of a training ship was used for Biological, Chemical and Radiological Training at Treasure Island. This article presents the maps of the island, past 1959 and present Google maps with an aerial photograph of the ship from 1969. How the overlay was made.
In 1957, the Navy built the first USS Pandemonium to be used as a training vessel built on land for (ABC) Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare Training.
Notice the slanted line in the ship photograph matches up with the slanted line in the 1959 map as well as teh curve in the road adn the dirt road street to the right, including the rectangular structure to the far right all matches up with the map below.
And then the overlay of the present Google map on the 1959 USGS map shows the Avenue B as the road that the dirt road corresponds with on the 1959 map
Resulting in the map at the top of this blog
Also notice the two tanks in the triangle shape which has a land component in its middle and the tank near the road which was the immediate collection tank from washing chemcial, biological and radiological material off the ship.
The training took place every 2 weeks because the radioactive bromide’s half life makes it “safe” in 1950s standards for safety to be dumped into the bay. Of course if you tried this today it would be illegal.
That tank would have the material sit in it for two weeks before being dumped into one of the other two tanks to sit out for 4 weeks before being dumped into the bay. If you look close you can see the little channels leading to each tank in the large triangle. Three tanks were needed to keep the operation going every 2 weeks.
The Triangle is in the Meadow which is where they found the high concentrations of Arsenic. Lewisite is a chemical weapon made of arsenic and acetylene and fits the description of the toxins.
ABC School means Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare Training School. This text is on page 1 of the of Office of Naval Research Mustard Gas test at Treasure Island:
As a result of the favorable properties reported for the U.S. Army Chemical Corps chemical warfare decontaminant DS2, tests of this material under shipboard conditions appeared desirable. Accordingly, the Bureau of Ships requested the ABC Defense School, Treasure Island, to submit plans for conduct of the tests by its own staff. It was expected that this group would be capable of performing the evaluation both efficiently and from a shipboard point of view.
Test plans were developed by the Treasure Island group and forwarded to the Bureau of Ships. The plans were studied by the Bureau and this Laboratory and approved with minor changes. A target of January 1959, was set for the test period, at which time a supply of DS2 could be supplied through the cooperation of the U.S. Army Chemical Corps.
The chemical warfare agent chosen for the DS2 evaluation tests was mustard gas (HD). Laboratory tests by the Chemical Corps had shown that mustard is the most difficult of the common persistent CW agents to decontaminate with DS2 (1). In addition, mustard was readily available at the ABC school, is safe to handle with reasonable precautions, and is capable of punishing the careless or unprotected worker by burns of varying severity.” Link to the Chemical Warfare Test using Mustard Gas at Treasure Island in 1964.
Below is the full 1959 map:
Figure 8.3-21 Former USS Pandemonium Location on Northwest Corner, Treasure Island Naval Station Historical Radiological Assessment February 2006 page 8-24