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Safety levels of nuclear radiation have changed over the years making previous cleanups are now nuclear accidents

When the government says that a site was cleaned up in the past, remember that the safety standards of the time are nuclear accidents today. It depends on when it was cleaned up. For instance the Nuclear Fuel Rod plant in San Jose was cleaned up to mid 1950s standards when the Atomic Energy Commission was worried about people getting Radiation Poisoniing and not the long term effects of cancer. It is now The Plant shopping center and it has to be re-evaluated for contamination. All of these sites have to be re-examined to determine if people are in danger!

10 CFR § 20.1301 – Dose limits for individual members of the public.
§ 20.1301 Dose limits for individual members of the public.

Source:

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Stauffer Chemical in Richmond CA processed uranium NRC records 1962

Stauffer Chemical (now Astra Zeneca) had a uranium processing mill in Richmond CA. This is the Atomic Energy Commission license to process and cut uranium for use in Nuclear Weapons. I am placing this article on my Treasure Island page as Stauffer Chemical Company was a supplier for the US Chemical Warfare Service in World War II and after and Treasure Island conducted training using Mustard Gas, a poison gas which was outlawed in the Treaty of Versailles.

Stauffer Chemical Company was immediately to the East of what is now the UC Berkeley Richmond Field Station, which also includes the US EPA Field Laboratory for Region 9 which encompasses California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, the Pacific Islands and Native American toxic waste sites. It is also less than a mile from the California Department of Public Health and all of these locations are within contamination range of the site. Nuclear radatiion can affect lab equipment.

Continue reading “Stauffer Chemical in Richmond CA processed uranium NRC records 1962”

Alpha Particle Radiation Detection Training at Treasure Island San Francisco CA and the facilities

Alpha Particle training at Treasure Island was conducted in Building 343 in a chamber that held various devices that would expose different types of nuclear radiation and the students were required to find the source and determine the safe levels away from the source and mark those on the floor.

Generally counting devices were used that had three settings, the default was gamma and for beta particles you removed one of two slides of glass to take the beta reading and then remove the remaining slide to detect alpha particles. Usually that was not enough and so they conducted swipe tests whereby the instructor would place a powder containing alpha particles onto surfaces and the student would have to find it and take a swab. This test was done on all bases and ships as it is very important to find alpha particle radiation indicating the presence of a nuclear weapon. The last photograph of this article is from the USS Proteus a nuclear submarine showing the areas used for regular training in radiation detection.

This means they had to secure the gamma and beta sources the Cesium 137 sources (Cs 137) so a good reading can be made.

But because the radiation training involved direct exposure to all the safety requirements often resulted in instructors avoiding the swab tests as they took on larger doses if this was done regularly and hence the use of devices. The problem is that in order to test properly for alpha particles you need to do the swab tests. A problem to this day.

We know they did this training because of the devices were in the building and other reports where they detail the swab testing. Here is a diagram of the building, a notice about the devices used, a photograph of the building today and the instructions from  United States. Army. U.S. Army Nuclear, Biological And Chemical School (AL,MD): Environmental Impact Statement. , 1979. 

RADIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS SUPPORT OFFICE
REPORT OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE VISIT
TO NAVAL SCHOOLS COMMAND, TREASURE
ISLAND, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
15 APRIL 1974
RADIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS SUPPORT OFFICE
REPORT OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE VISIT
TO NAVAL SCHOOLS COMMAND, TREASURE
ISLAND, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
15 APRIL 1974

Note the cleanup broke into this building and ripped off the roof and broke into the “Radium Vault” which is between the two buildings in the mid left which contained all sorts of nuclear isotopes, probably still does and they in their recklessness damaged it not realizing it was fortified for a reason. They destroyed it with barbarism and ignorance.

Continue reading “Alpha Particle Radiation Detection Training at Treasure Island San Francisco CA and the facilities”
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Radiation Training on Treasure Island using isotopes

From 1970 onwards the Navy used short lived Isotopes that they would paint onto surfaces of a mock up of a training ship the USS Pandemonium where they washed it off and scrubbed it off the ship into the Bay. Here is the training from United States. Army. U.S. Army Nuclear, Biological And Chemical School (AL,MD): Environmental Impact Statement. , 1979. We know it was done at Treasure Island because it says so in this text. We also know this because the training manuals including the 1960 and 1963 “ABC Warfare Defense” Training Manual (Atomic, Biological and Chemical) were photographed on Treasure Island. This is a photograph of the training with Alcatraz and the Marin Headlands in the background.

Note this training was regularly and continuously conducted as they had to train members of all branches of the military. Schedules can be found in navy publications of the times from 1947onwards for ABC Training.

You can see Alcatraz and the Marin Headlands in the background.
RADIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS SUPPORT OFFICE
REPORT OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE VISIT
TO NAVAL SCHOOLS COMMAND, TREASURE
ISLAND, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
15 APRIL 1974
RADIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS SUPPORT OFFICE
REPORT OF TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE VISIT
TO NAVAL SCHOOLS COMMAND, TREASURE
ISLAND, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
15 APRIL 1974

Note the number of miscellaneous radioluminescent devices, held in a plastic bag were utilized as check sources were radium dials and radium foils that were found buried all around the original location of the USS Pandemonium which is under the housing at Treasure Island. See this article on the amounts of radiation dug up exposing the residents to over 90 REMS of nuclear radiation each year with one object that radiated 30 REMS a year found in 2021.

Here is the step by step training and safety precautions below

Continue reading “Radiation Training on Treasure Island using isotopes”
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REM and Curie Measurements

REMS

The maximum safe level of radiation for Member of the Public for a year is 100 mrems per year which is:

0.1 rem per year
100 mrems per year
100,000 microrems per year (which is 100,000 µrem)

The maximum safe level of radiation for anyone including radiation workers for an hour is 2 mrems per hour

AmountSymbolName
.0002rems/hrrems per hour
2mrems/hrmillirems per hour
2,000µrem/hrmicrorems per hour
Note in the POST-CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY REPORT the Navy use mR/hr to denote microrems. In other reports they denoted it properly.

The Navy in its spreadsheet listing the radioactive foils used the wrong symbol for microrems. The Navy used mR/h for microrems per hour. The proper symbol is µrem/hr and I will use them in the tables below

There is no safe level for handling radioactive objects with your bare hands, if you pick one up, or come not contact with any radioactive substance there is a risk.

This is particularly important as the radioactive objects found on Treasure island were either thin foils of radioactive materials or objects painted with radium paint. These objects have since rusted away and can be picked up on the wind, so everyone within 4 miles of the island can be exposed to the radiation as it travels in the dust on the wind.

Map showing EPA Distances for exposure for Treasure Island, Fort Mason, the Navy Dispensary on Fell Street and Hunters Point Shipyard. The red lines are 4 miles,, the blue-green is 3 miles, the White is 3 miles and the red is one mile. Note Fell Street’s 1 mile radium is in yellow to denote near neighbors to the Radiation site. All of these sites are nuclear radiation sites in San Francisco. City hall is within range of the Naval Dispensary on Fell Street.

Calculating the Maximum Amount of Radiation for a Member of the Public for a year for an hour.

There are 8760 hours in a year and the people who live on the island, live there all year, so to calculate the hourly rate of a safe dose for a year you get:

100 mrems per year divided by 8760 (hours in a year) comes out to a little over 0.0114 mrems/hr.

I am rounding off to make this easier for everyone to figure out. The real number is 0.0114155251141553

So any radiation amount that is more than 0.0114 mrems per hour will exceed the safe maximum level of radiation for individual members of the public in a year.

0.0114 mrems per hour is:

Amount NumberSymbolName
0.0000114 rems/hrrems per hour
0.0114mrems/hrmillirems per hour
11.4µrem/hr microrems per hour
Note in the POST-CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY REPORT the Navy use mR/hr to denote microrems. In other reports they denoted it properly.

So if you compare the radiation levels for each object in the POST-CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY REPORT December 2019. Table 7 lists the Radium objects in this report on pages 163-185. you can see that the objects listed are below the immediate danger level of 2 mrems per hour so the people will not get radiation sickness. But about 86 of them exceed the yearly dose rate per hour and because each object adds to the total amount of radiation, the people of Treasure Island were exposed to over 60 REMS of nuclear radiation for each year and that is a nuclear accident!

The Navy found these objects in 2013 and placed them in boxes to store them underground instead of removing them when they found the danger. They were required by law to remove them when they found them.

Why didn’t they remove the danger to the residents?

Problem is that radiation goes right through the ground and so the Navy needlessly exposed the residents to this radiation for 5 years until they dug it up and removed it in 2018. See my article

But Wait There’s More:

3.5 mrems per hour which is 30 REMS PER YEAR from Anomaly A-G03/A-CDPH 1303A reported May 26, 2021

Here are the Curie tables based on one Curie of radiation

AmountSymbolName
1Ci/gCurie per gram
1,000mCi/gmillicuries per gram
1,000,000µCi/g microcuries per gram
1,000,000,000nCi/gnanocuries per gram
1,000,000,000,000pCi/gpicocuries per gram
The safe level of radiation for the cleanup is 1.69 pCi/g

The following report and description of the radiological area has a number of objects, I am posting one of them in this article, there are more that also exceed safe levels (one is 49.5 pCi/g found 16 inches below the housing) and the Navy found them in 2013 and have left them there to irradiate the people on treasure Island all of these years. Note they were there for decades but when they knew it was radioactive, they did not start to remove it until 2021. Again I ask Why because they knowingly allowed these people to be exposed to the radiation! That’s murder.

FINAL WORK PLAN
Intrusive Investigation – Radiological Areas of Interest
FORMER NAVAL STATION TREASURE ISLAND
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
May 2021
p 2-2


“Anomaly A-G03/A-CDPH 1303A – Sample location 1303A lies near a concrete walkway adjacent to Building 1303. In March 2013, small discrete particles (3,500 mR/hr. on contact) were collected by CDPH during pre-remediation soil sampling and sent to the Drinking Water and Radiation Laboratory Branch (DWRLB) for analysis. The radioactive fragments were sieved out of the soil sample during sample preparation. CDPH also collected soil samples prior to, during, and after remediation activities. The post-remediation 226Ra sample result (i.e., soil sample collected from the bottom of the excavation) was 1.02 pCi/g (CDPH, 2013). However, during a subsequent investigation conducted in October 2013, LLRO #1282 was found and retrieved and a soil sample collected from the same location detected 226Ra concentrations of 2.2 pCi/g, which is above the NSTI screening criteria of 1.69 pCi/g.”

226Ra is Radium226

1.69 pCi/g is 1.69 picocuries per gram the following tables shows the equivalent amounts:

AmountSymbolName
0.00000000000169Ci/gcuries per gram
0.00000000169mCi/gmillicuries per gram
0.00000169µCi/g microcuries per gram
.00169nCi/gnanocuries per gram
1.69pCi/gpicocuries per gram
The safe level of radiation for the cleanup is 1.69 pCi/g

So if you apply this to the foils of radiation used at the US Treasury/ATF building that was located at Avenue M and Fourth Street in Building 233 at Treasure Island, the NRC noted a violation on the storage and leak checking of radioactive foils made of radioactive Tritium and radioactive Nickle.63 They range from 15 to 6,000 millicuries of radiation.

The 6000 millicuries is 6 Curies of Radiation and was used in the Sentex Sensing Technology, Inc. Model 50319 Detector Cell with each foil measuring 150 millicuries of radiation but the device used 40 of them.

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission noted many violations on Treasure island. In this case it was violation from 6/23/1987 which was for not leak checking the radiation in these devices and receiving radioactive foils that were not meant to be shipped to them. The ATF had two labs, one in Rockville MD and the other at Treasure Island.

Note that this license was being evaluated while the Navy was writing the 1988 Radiological Survey report for the EPA. No mention of the long term radioactive materials. Nickel63 has a half life of 100.1 years while Tritium has a half life of 12.3 years.

So 150 millicuries of radiation is equivalent to these amounts:

AmountSymbolName
0.150Ci/gcuries per gram
150mCi/gmillicuries per gram
150,000µCi/g microcuries per gram
150,000,000nCi/gnanocuries per gram
150,000,000,000pCi/gpicocuries per gram
The safe level of radiation for the cleanup is 1.69 pCi/g

The Navy underrated the level of contamination in 2013 saying it was safe leaving it there to contaminate the residents when later on they found it exceeded the safe levels of radiation.

So there are four issues here that affects both lists of radiological objects found, and remember this is just two reports, there are more reports of objects found that have to be added to the total amount of radiation on the island:

1. They found radiation in 2013 and did not dig it up until now thus exposing the residents to radiation for years and that exposure is at least 90 REMS per year, a nuclear accident.
2. The Navy admits that they goofed up when they first measured the radiation in 2013, reporting it far less than what it actually is today, so that puts into question the amounts of radiation of all radiation readings on the island.
3. The levels of radiation exceed the safe levels of 100 mrems per year and 2 mrems per hour making the site a nuclear disaster site.
4. These radioactive objects were found buried with bombs and ammunition so if a bomb blows up, the radiation gets spread over a large area in the wind.

The City needs to evacuate these people immediately and stop all construction on the island, because to place people to live there is murder.

On Treasure Island, people live inside toxic cleanup zones

Report By Carol Harvey, Investigative Reporter, The San Francisco Bay View National Black Newspaper

MPPEH and Materiel Which May Present an Explosive Hazard

MPPEH is a designation for material that is owned or controlled by DOD that, prior to determination of its explosive safety status, potentially contains explosive hazards and/or munitions. MPPEH is addressed by DOD Instruction 4140.62, “Material Potentially Presenting an Explosive Hazard,” November 25, 2008.

DLA Disposition Services must ensure that only Material Documented as Safe (MDAS) may be released to the public. As such, MPPEH property requires an MDAS Certification or Inert Certification prior to turn-in.

MDAS/Inert Certification must be included or attached to the DD Form 1348-1A and on each container/property.

  • Munitions containers and packaging material
  • Munitions debris remaining after munitions use
  • Demilitarization residue
  • Disposal and range-related debris

Material potentially containing a high enough concentration of explosives such that the material presents and explosive hazard such as: equipment, drainage systems, holding tanks, piping, and ventilation ducts that were associated with munitions productions, demilitarization, or disposal operations.

MDAS is MPPEH that has been assessed and documented as not presenting an explosive hazard. MDAS Certification requires two independent signatures by trained and certified personnel.

The first signatory must be a technically-qualified, DOD employee or DOD Contractor who either witnessed or performed the initial 100-percent inspection or DDESB (Defense Explosive Safety Board)-approved processing of the material.

The second signatory must be a technically-qualified, U.S. citizen who is either a DOD employee or DOD Contractor who either performed or witnessed the 100-percent re-inspection or conducted an independent quality assurance inspection of processed material using an approved sampling method.

Each signatory must ensure the chain of custody was maintained before signing the explosives safety documentation.

The following MPPEH will be accepted by DLA Disposition Services as long as the MPPEH is certified Inert and includes an Inert Certification:

  • Small arms and light weapons (complete weapon)
  • Barrel assembly and upper receiver
  • Ammunition pouches/outer tactical vests/individual load-bearing equipment/Modular Lightweight Load Carrying Equipment (MOLLE)
  • Ammunition magazines and clips
  • Bandoleers and ammunition belts
  • Dummy munitions

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2011 Nuclear Radiation Maps of Treasure Island Housing made by the Navy

Citation: TREASURE ISLAND, SITE 12 GAMMA SURVEY REPORT SURVEY DATES: APRIL 5-7, 2011

In 2011 the Navy conducted a radiological survey and found Radium, Thorium, Uranium, Radioactive Potassium and Radioactive Thallium under the housing at Treasure Island by driving a towed array of radiation detectors over the streets and yards producing a map of radiation for the Housing on Site 12 at Treasure Island Naval Base. This article will show many of the maps created of the Radiation at the housing on Treasure Island.

The materials were not cleaned up at the time, but these isotopes give off radiation at certain frequencies and by reading these frequencies we can know what types of materials are giving off the gamma and X rays of these specific isotopes. The Chart below shows the different frequencies and their corresponding isotopes listed across the top. This is gamma radiation. Alpha and Beta radiation require laboratory work to confirm their presence. So you would not be able to detect Plutonium in this study, which was used in the Radiation Training at Treasure Island.

The radiation was centered on the area of the island where the Navy conducted the Radiological, Chemical and Biological Training using mock ups of a ship, the USS Pandemonium, an airplane, and a field gun. Eventually the Navy would collect Radium objects that were in the first 10 inches of soil and place them in boxes to be sorted out later in 2018.

In response to the increase in radiation, the Navy extended the chain link fences in order to protect the residents from what turned out to be a nuclear disaster. See Survey Findings below.

Continue reading “2011 Nuclear Radiation Maps of Treasure Island Housing made by the Navy”

Building Housing on top of Munitions Bunkers at Treasure Island

Map of Site 12 showing the radiation found in the TREASURE ISLAND, SITE 12 GAMMA SURVEY REPORT
SURVEY DATES: APRIL 5-7, 2011 The red areas are three times the background level of radiation requiring removal.
BASEWIDE ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE SURVEY REPORT FOR NAVAL STATION TREASURE ISLAND, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, MAY 19, 1995 Note the T numbers
PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT SITE INSPECTION OF NAVAL STATION TREASURE ISLAND, CA. VOLUME I, NEESA 13-092, NAVAL ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUPPORT ACTIVITY, Port Hueneme, California 93043 April 1988

Treasure Island had Ammunition Bunkers located under the housing of the base which is located on the left side of this map and here is a close up below.

The Baseline survey claimed the Navy destroyed the bunkers before they built housing on the site but the bunkers are still there and the Navy has recovered munitions including a report in 2019 of a Japanese Mortar with over 6 pounds of high Explosive just in that one bomb which just for that one item the required setback for any civilian construction is 180 feet according to 27 CFR § 555.218 – Table of distances for storage of explosive materials. https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/27/555.218.

27 CFR § 555.218 – Table of distances for storage of explosive materials. https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/27/555.218
27 CFR § 555.218 – Table of distances for storage of explosive materials. https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/27/555.218

The Japanese Mortar Shell was one of many munitions listed in the 2019 report removed and detonated at Travis Air Force Base according to the
FINAL POST-CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY REPORT Non-Time Critical Removal Action for Solid Waste Disposal Areas Westside Drive, Bayside Drive, and North Point Drive, Radiological Characterization, Building Demolition, and Remediation, Installation Restoration Site 12 (Phase III) FORMER NAVAL STATION TREASURE ISLAND SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, December 2019, p 4-24

Continue reading “Building Housing on top of Munitions Bunkers at Treasure Island”
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90 REMS of Nuclear Radiation Per Year at Treasure Island – the Spreadsheet and the laws UPDATE

60 REMS / year of radium objects, deck markers, radium dials, all by product materials that were found in the first 10 inches of soil on the ground under the housing at Treasure Island. Note the navy spreadsheet marks micro rems as mR when it should be µrem/hr

This article explains the spreadsheet of radiological items discovered in 2013 which the Navy buried in a box below the housing in 2015 then removed them in 2018 thus exposing the residents to 60 rems per year for 5 years before they removed them, thus exposing the residents to 300 REMS of nuclear radiation in violation of the law.

On May 26th of 2021 the Navy reported finding new objects in the soil and one of them is 30 REMS per year of nuclear radiation or 3500 mR/hr. This one object is a nuclear accident, it violates the immediate one hour danger level of 2000 mR/ hr exposure and it violates the 100,000 mR/year exposure by 300 times the amount of radiation for a member of the public.

I will go into more detail on the recent find in another article but I posted the initial report at the end of this article.


Spreadsheet of 684 Radium objects, numbers 596 to 1280, found in the top 10 inches of soil10 at Treasure Island California exposing the residents to 60.409 Rems of Radiation each year.

55 REMS of that total comes from one location the B-25 box where the Navy collected radioactive objects found on the site of the Radiological Training Area on Treasure Island which was demolished to build housing upon the site starting in the 1960s. There are other objects some with radiation levels higher than in this list (including one that was 3500 mR/hr (µrem/hr) or 30 REMS per year in a report published on May 26, 202112 which means the exposure of people on the Island goes up to 90 Rems per year) and I will post them in subsequent articles to be linked here. An explanation of each column is below.

The Spreadsheet shows that they knew about the radiation, the exact amounts but let it sit there on the site over many years and the amounts add up. 2 years is 120 REMS of exposure, 3 is 180 REMSs, so every object they uncover adds to the amounts exposed to the public. This is a direct violation of the law:

42 U.S. Code § 9603 – Notification requirements respecting released substances

(a)Notice to National Response Center upon release from vessel or offshore or onshore facility by person in charge; conveyance of notice by Center

Any person in charge of a vessel or an offshore or an onshore facility shall, as soon as he has knowledge of any release (other than a federally permitted release) of a hazardous substance from such vessel or facility in quantities equal to or greater than those determined pursuant to section 9602 of this title, immediately notify the National Response Center established under the Clean Water Act [33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.] of such release. The National Response Center shall convey the notification expeditiously to all appropriate Government agencies, including the Governor of any affected State.

(b)Penalties for failure to notify; use of notice or information pursuant to notice in criminal case

If the EPA was informed of the radiation, they would have evacuated and taken over the site cleanup.

This report is the POST-CONSTRUCTION SUMMARY REPORT December 2019, full citation below. Table 7 lists the Radium objects in this report on pages 163-185.

200 Foot Boundary

200 feet is the boundary between a radiological site and the civilian residents. If a civilian lives within 200 feet of the fence of a radiological or any type of toxic waste site they are considered to be ON THE SITE. There is no boundary at Treasure Island, the residents are living ON THE SITE!

This is a direct violation of the very law cited on page 1-2 of this report where they claim compliance with the “National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (Code of Federal Regulations [CFR], Title 40, Part 300) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation.

40 CFR Appendix A to Part 300 – The Hazard Ranking System:
5.1.1 Resident population threat. Evaluate the resident population threat only if there is an area of observed contamination in one or more of the following locations:

• Within the property boundary of a residence, school, or day care center and within 200 feet of the respective residence, school, or day care center, or

• Within a workplace property boundary and within 200 feet of a workplace area, or

• Within the boundaries of a resource specified in section 5.1.1.3.4, or

• Within the boundaries of a terrestrial sensitive environment specified in section 5.1.1.3.5.

If not, assign the resident population threat a value of 0, enter this value in Table 5-1, and proceed to the nearby population threat (section 5.1.2).

There are two levels of safe radiation, one is the immediate dose and the other is the yearly dose. The Navy decided to only list the radiation by the hour to show that it does not exceed the immediate dose but failed to place on the same chart the yearly dose which prove it is a nuclear disaster area, so I calculated it by multiplying the per hour dose by 8760 hours in a year and divided the legal dosages per year by 8760 to get the hourly amounts.

60 Rems of radiation will give you a 1 in 4 chance of getting cancer11, that is just for starters, it gets worse from there. Also the Navy discovered this for these specific objects in 2013, why did they choose to not evacuate the people, knowing exactly the danger? That’s 300 REMS of Radiation needlessly exposing the residents of Treasure Island which increased their chance of getting cancer to 74 in 10011 And we now they had radiation surveys in reports published in 2007.

The RSY Pads in the above map (page 111) of the cleanup sites for nuclear radiation were places where they removed objects from B-25 boxes to dry out the materials and you will notice the locations are within 200 feet of housing. The materials in the boxes buried under ground which were collected in the past and buried there for the cleanup, had to be dried out as the conditions under ground is the water table is very high and they had to dry out everything so they exposed everyone to these dry out locations with the 60 Rems of radiation. This is gamma radiation which requires 6 feet of lead to protect you from the exposure so the radiation buried under ground is just as radioactive as when they put them on the drying locations. So the people of Site 12 have been exposed each year with the full dose of 60 Rems from these radium objects.

The correct symbol for a micro Rem is µrem. The footnotes to the Navy Table on page 185 of the report notify that they using Micro Rems which is a millionth of a Rem but they use the wrong symbol on their spreadsheets. The Navy’s spreadsheet uses mR for microrem. mrems are mili rems or 1/1000th of a REM.

So you have

The annual doss for a member of the public is 100 milli rems designated as 100 mrem

100 mrem is 0.1 REM

100 mrem is 100,000 micro rems which in this report is designated as mR but in the real world it is µrem and the only reason the would do this is to confuse people.

In this spreadsheet Item 777 at the top of the spreadsheet (above):
Cumulative number: 777
item number: 10/21/2015-337
Description: Foil
Date Recovered: 10/21/2015
Location Identified: B-25 Box 2830 95% complete
Originating SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Area): Westside
Item loaded into US Army JMC Waste Brooker Transfer Container-date: 2/15/2018
Radiation Level Highest Contact (mR/h)1: 260I
Highest Contact Level per year x X 8760 (hours): 2,277,600 which is 2.2776 REMS per year)
Individual Members of the public Dose 100 mrems per year value in micro rems/per hour:11.4

Continue reading “90 REMS of Nuclear Radiation Per Year at Treasure Island – the Spreadsheet and the laws UPDATE”