Military Chemistry and Chemical Agents 1942

This document is refered to by multiple Chemical Warfare textbooks used on Treasure Island and was the definition of Chemical Warfare Training during World War II. Unfortunately the training chemicals for chemical warfare were deadly poisons and the chemicals used to clean are deadly poisons. Here is a photograph of the gas mask training at Edgewood Arsenal where the plane is spraying “Asbestine” which was asbestos and talcum powder onto the unsuspecting recruits.

Naval Trainign Bulletin 1`5 March 1944

The other training chemical which was used to simulate Mustard Gas was mostly Molasses with sand and Cresols which are a deadly poison. This was dumped on 60,000 soldiers trained in chemical warfare for World War II and the VA made an alotment for their exposure durinig the war. My guess is nobody told the VA that they continued this training after the war and to this day.

All battles of World War II had Chemical Warfare ready to be used if the Axis powers decided to use them. It was the first demonstration of Mutually Assured Destruction in combat and it was not used in the war for offensive conflict against the allies. The Japanese had used it in China when they invaded in the early 30s but did not use it against The US in the war. They knew we had perfected our techniques and were ready to use them!

This is the revised edition for the Training Manual 1942 and the revisions were located at the front of the document. Also understand that these chemical weapons used full laboratories to make the agents, and those other chemicals are listed in this publication. I will post the chemical weapons and the chemicals used directly for working with them in the field whther in combat or in medical treatment in an index at the end and their current status of toxicity.

  • The new agents for 1942:
    • 144.1 Phenyldichlorarsine
    • 158.2 Hydrocyanic Acid
    • 158.3 Cyanogen Chloride – which was made in Linden NJ
    • 158.1 Arsine

In Training manuals the numbering system is for the item numbers and not the page numbers and to provide an index at the and of this document. Thsi is done so the new agents can fit into existing documents with other numbered toxins under their categories without having to number them again. It is important to standardize all training to the same exact specifications so it can be done anywhere. This procedure would continue for all CBR Training on all bases. The main document was printed in 1940 so it uses different terms. Eveyrthing was standardized in the war so the British Chemical Warfare agent names and descriptions matched with the US Names and descriptions. So for instance Mustard Gas was (H) it is now (HS). Later editions would fix this.

Mustard Gas Test at Treasure Island 1964

The Navy applied the Mustard Gas as a liquid onto a field gun, a mock up of a ship and a mock up of an airplane along with several vertical steel placards that they set up on the island to measure the different effects of weathering on an application of Mustard as a liquid onto these plaques. By using it in liquid form the concentration of the vapors from evaporation would be 50 times the lethal amount than from it being deployed as gas. The Training used mustard gas as a liquid and here is the information from this document of the danger. The concentrations at lower temperatures are still multiples of the lethal amount.

Continue reading “Military Chemistry and Chemical Agents 1942”

Biological Warfare Defense 1953 Index

This will present the index to the Training Manual Biological Warfare Defense 1953 that was used on Treasure Island even though the minimum distance for safety is 2 miles from the use of these biological weapons. San Francisco is within 2 miles of Treasure Island. The page numbers are at the end of each item.

The Second Section will list the Chemicals and Biological Diseases used in training and their consequences today. For instance the Navy used biological agents which they thought were harmless but are the major source of infections in hospitals today. The Navy purposely infected the country with these diseases to study how far it would travel and how to clean it up. Who cares if people died it was for them to needlessly kill american citizens to protect them!

The purpose of all of this is to make the terms searchable in this website so that when used in other training manuals you can see the overlap and the changes in use over time.

Part A. Biological Warfare Agents

A1.01 Purpose and scope 1

  1. Purpose 1
  2. Scope 1

A1.02 Responsibility for Biological Warfare Defense 1

A1.03 Biological Warfare Defined 1

A1.04 Biological Warfare Agents 2

  1. Classification 2
  2. Characteristics 2

A1.05 Simulant Agents 2

Bacillus globigiiNIH – Bacillus globigii (Bg) spores are used as a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (Ba) due to their similar shape, size, and cellular makeup
Bacillus Prodigiosus – NIH – A Study of the Toxins of Bacillus prodigiosus 
Serratia Marcescens – Originally thought to be harmless is the major cause of infections in hospitals today. It was used by the Navy all over the country for biological warfare experiments and training. Now we can’t get rid of it! PubMed Serratia Marcescens– A Rare Opportunistic Nosocomial Pathogen and Measures to Limit its Spread in Hospitalized Patients

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Chemical Warfare Service founding members of Chemical Warfare Association 1946

Chemical Corps Journal Vol 1 No. 1 August 1946
This is the first issue of the Chemical Corps Journal which would later be named the Armed Forces Chemical Journal and they list the founding members who supplied the chemical warfare service during World War II. The journal over the years have ads for companies that participated in the Development of Chemical and Biological Warfare.
Merck in Rahway is among them.

Agawam Dye Works, Inc., Lawrence MA
American Cyanamid Co., 30 Rockefeller Plaza NY NY (RCA building NBC is located on that site)
The Barneby-Cheney Engineering Co., Columbus, OH
The Bell Machine Co., Oshkosh, WI
Buffalo Electro-Chemical Co., Inc. Buffalo NY
Celanese Corp of America, NY NY
Chicago Eye Shield Co., Chicago IL
Day and Night Manufacturing Co;, Monrovia CA
Doehler-Jarvis Corp, NY NY
Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI
Dryden Rubber Co., Chicago IL
E I Dupont De Nemours & Co.., Inc., Wilmington DE
Electromaster, Inc., Detroit MI
Empire Stove Co., Belleville IL
Federal Laboratories, Pittsburg PA
Fencil, Wm., Co., Huntley IL
Firestone Rubber & Latex Products Co., Fall River MA
Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. Akron OH
Fraser and Johson Co., San Francisco CA
General Dyestuff Corp., NY NY
General Tire & Rubber Co., Wabash IN
Handy & Harman, NY NY
Hell Co., Milwaukee WI
Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington DE
Heyden Chemical Corp NY NY
Hub Hosiery Mills, Lowell MA
Hooker Electrochemical Co., Niagara Falls NY
Industrial Rubber Goods Co., St Louis MO
Merck & Company, Rahway NJ
Mineapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co., Minneapolis MN
Monsanto Chemical Co. St Louis MO
National Fireworks, Inc,. West Hanover MA
National Magnesium Corp. of MD., NY NY
Niagara Alkali Co., NY NY
Pemco Corp, Baltimore MD
Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co., Philadelphia PA
Pilcher, J. V. Mfg., Co., Pittsburg PA
Raymond Laboratories, Inc., St Paul, MN
Scovil Manufacturing Co., Waterbury CN
Standard Products Co., Detroit MI
Standard Oil Development Co., NY NY
Stauffer Chemical Co., NY NY
Victor Chemical Works, Chicago, IL
Vulcan Copper & Supply Co., Cinncinnati, OH
Wallace & Tiernan Products, Inc., Belleville NJ
Westvaco Chlorine Products Co., NY NY
World Steel Products Corp., NY NY
Wyandotte Chemicals Co., Wyandotte MI
Zaremba Co., Buffalo NY

Peacetime Implications of Biological Warfare by George W Merck of Merck and Co in Rahway NJ

Chemical Corps Journal Vol 1 No. 1 August 1946 it would later be called the Armed Forces Chemical Journal.

After the war:
The US Naval Biological Research Lab was in the Oakland Navy Depot.
The Army’s Biological Lab was located at Fort Baker in the Golden Gate National Park and is used today to teach children about the biological of the Golden Gate Park. These children need to be evacuated immediately!


Training manuals of the US Navy for Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare

I will be adding content to this as there are many training manuals and I will provide links to those online. I have to go through all ofthem. Here are some relating directly to Treasure Island, indicated in the documents.

ABC WARFARE DEFENSE 1960 and 1963 photogaphed at Treasure Island

Photographed on Treasure Island. Notice the Marine Headlands in the background and Alcatraz Island. This is near the Arsenic bubble that the Navy had to clean up , it would be in this picture behind and to the right and right next to the mock up ship the USS Pandemonium.

ABC warfare defense ashore: United States Navy 1060

Continue reading “Training manuals of the US Navy for Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare”

1946 Chemical Warfare Training and Radium Plaque Adaptometer course Schedules at Treasure Island and the Navy

Naval Training Bulletin 1946-47
This article will list the courses published in the Naval Training Bulletin for Chemical Warfare and Radium Plaque Adaptometer at Treasure Island Navy Base, which is also the 12th Naval Naval District Command and Naval Schools Command. I will present Treasure Island first and then the rest of the Navy so you can see which Districts specialized in this training over time.

The Radium Plaque Adaptometer was a device where a radium source was placed within 10 inches of the eyes in order to test the ability of the sailor to see at night. Radium causes phosphur to illuminate at very dim levels that cannot be replicated with light bulbs. They conducted this test on all Navy personnel from 1944 to 1951 thus exposing them to intense radiation.

Treasure Island February 15, 1946: Chemical Warfare and Radium Plaque Adaptometer

Naval Training Bulletin 15 Feb 1946

Boston – Chemical Warfare School – Feb 1946

Brooklyn – Chemical Warfare and Radium Plaque Adaptometer – Feb 1946

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Chemical Warfare Weapons of the US from US Naval Training Bulletin March 1944

The US had chemical weapons ready to be used in retaliation to any German or Japanese chemical or biological warfare attack. We had various types of weapons shown in thsi chart from March 1944 Naval Training Bulletin.

Source” Naval Training Bulletin 15 March 1944

Naval Training Bulletin 15 March 1944
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Mustard VX and Sarin Gases used in Training for Chemical Warfare Schools 1978 Environmental Impact Statement

Draft Environmental Impact Statement Establishment of the US Army NBC Defense School
16 August 1978 (Revised 21 Nov 1978)

GB is Sarin Gas
VX is a Nerve agent
Mustard Gas burns the skin, lungs, eyes etc
U is Uranium
Pu is Plutonium
Cs is Cesium 137

Background on Joint training and the manuals

The Training at Treasure Island referred to in this Environmental Impact Statement for the creation of a new Chemical Biological and Radiological School which also includes the Environmental impact of a school. The entire book is an instruction manual on the use of Mustard, Sarin and VX Nerve Gas well as biological aand radiological training with step by step instructions.

This has been consistent in all training manuals, they encompass all sites with the training usually at Edgewood Arsenal, Treasure Island and Fort McClelland as shown below from the 1952 Chemical Warfare Defense manual cites those three sites for same training manuals, I will cite more below. Fort McClelland temporarily took over from Treasure Island from 1967 to the early 1970s when they moved the training devices and mock ups from the west side of the island under the present day housing to the north east side of the island.

This article will focus on the 1978 Report

Continue reading “Mustard VX and Sarin Gases used in Training for Chemical Warfare Schools 1978 Environmental Impact Statement”

1978 EIS Appendix C-2 – Mustard Decontamination Exercise

1978 Environmental Impact Statement for the Army to build a brand new Chemical, Biological and Radiological Training Facility with references to the training at Treasure Island. These are the Course instructions, how they did it, what they measured out, etc.
The Government compensated Veterans of World War II for their training exposure to Mustard Gas and Lewisite (Aresenic) Chemical weapons. Unfortunately nobody mentioned that they didn’t stop using it for training even after the Treaties Banning it were passed.

Continue reading “1978 EIS Appendix C-2 – Mustard Decontamination Exercise”

1978 EIS Appendix C-1 – GB (Sarin) and VX Field Identification and Decontamination Exercises

1978 Environmental Impact Statement for the Army to build a brand new Chemical, Biological and Radiological Training Facility with references to the training at Treasure Island. These are the Course instructions, how they did it, what they measured out, etc.

GB is Sarin Gas
VX is a Nerve agent
Mustard Gas burns the skin, lungs, eyes etc

Appendix C-1 GB (Sarin) and VX Field Identification and Decontamination Exercises

Continue reading “1978 EIS Appendix C-1 – GB (Sarin) and VX Field Identification and Decontamination Exercises”