Biological Warfare Defense 1953 Index

This will present the index to the Training Manual Biological Warfare Defense 1953 that was used on Treasure Island even though the minimum distance for safety is 2 miles from the use of these biological weapons. San Francisco is within 2 miles of Treasure Island. The page numbers are at the end of each item.

The Second Section will list the Chemicals and Biological Diseases used in training and their consequences today. For instance the Navy used biological agents which they thought were harmless but are the major source of infections in hospitals today. The Navy purposely infected the country with these diseases to study how far it would travel and how to clean it up. Who cares if people died it was for them to needlessly kill american citizens to protect them!

The purpose of all of this is to make the terms searchable in this website so that when used in other training manuals you can see the overlap and the changes in use over time.

Part A. Biological Warfare Agents

A1.01 Purpose and scope 1

  1. Purpose 1
  2. Scope 1

A1.02 Responsibility for Biological Warfare Defense 1

A1.03 Biological Warfare Defined 1

A1.04 Biological Warfare Agents 2

  1. Classification 2
  2. Characteristics 2

A1.05 Simulant Agents 2

Bacillus globigiiNIH – Bacillus globigii (Bg) spores are used as a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (Ba) due to their similar shape, size, and cellular makeup
Bacillus Prodigiosus – NIH – A Study of the Toxins of Bacillus prodigiosus 
Serratia Marcescens – Originally thought to be harmless is the major cause of infections in hospitals today. It was used by the Navy all over the country for biological warfare experiments and training. Now we can’t get rid of it! PubMed Serratia Marcescens– A Rare Opportunistic Nosocomial Pathogen and Measures to Limit its Spread in Hospitalized Patients

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Chemical Warfare Service founding members of Chemical Warfare Association 1946

Chemical Corps Journal Vol 1 No. 1 August 1946
This is the first issue of the Chemical Corps Journal which would later be named the Armed Forces Chemical Journal and they list the founding members who supplied the chemical warfare service during World War II. The journal over the years have ads for companies that participated in the Development of Chemical and Biological Warfare.
Merck in Rahway is among them.

Agawam Dye Works, Inc., Lawrence MA
American Cyanamid Co., 30 Rockefeller Plaza NY NY (RCA building NBC is located on that site)
The Barneby-Cheney Engineering Co., Columbus, OH
The Bell Machine Co., Oshkosh, WI
Buffalo Electro-Chemical Co., Inc. Buffalo NY
Celanese Corp of America, NY NY
Chicago Eye Shield Co., Chicago IL
Day and Night Manufacturing Co;, Monrovia CA
Doehler-Jarvis Corp, NY NY
Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI
Dryden Rubber Co., Chicago IL
E I Dupont De Nemours & Co.., Inc., Wilmington DE
Electromaster, Inc., Detroit MI
Empire Stove Co., Belleville IL
Federal Laboratories, Pittsburg PA
Fencil, Wm., Co., Huntley IL
Firestone Rubber & Latex Products Co., Fall River MA
Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. Akron OH
Fraser and Johson Co., San Francisco CA
General Dyestuff Corp., NY NY
General Tire & Rubber Co., Wabash IN
Handy & Harman, NY NY
Hell Co., Milwaukee WI
Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington DE
Heyden Chemical Corp NY NY
Hub Hosiery Mills, Lowell MA
Hooker Electrochemical Co., Niagara Falls NY
Industrial Rubber Goods Co., St Louis MO
Merck & Company, Rahway NJ
Mineapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co., Minneapolis MN
Monsanto Chemical Co. St Louis MO
National Fireworks, Inc,. West Hanover MA
National Magnesium Corp. of MD., NY NY
Niagara Alkali Co., NY NY
Pemco Corp, Baltimore MD
Pennsylvania Salt Mfg. Co., Philadelphia PA
Pilcher, J. V. Mfg., Co., Pittsburg PA
Raymond Laboratories, Inc., St Paul, MN
Scovil Manufacturing Co., Waterbury CN
Standard Products Co., Detroit MI
Standard Oil Development Co., NY NY
Stauffer Chemical Co., NY NY
Victor Chemical Works, Chicago, IL
Vulcan Copper & Supply Co., Cinncinnati, OH
Wallace & Tiernan Products, Inc., Belleville NJ
Westvaco Chlorine Products Co., NY NY
World Steel Products Corp., NY NY
Wyandotte Chemicals Co., Wyandotte MI
Zaremba Co., Buffalo NY

Peacetime Implications of Biological Warfare by George W Merck of Merck and Co in Rahway NJ

Chemical Corps Journal Vol 1 No. 1 August 1946 it would later be called the Armed Forces Chemical Journal.

After the war:
The US Naval Biological Research Lab was in the Oakland Navy Depot.
The Army’s Biological Lab was located at Fort Baker in the Golden Gate National Park and is used today to teach children about the biological of the Golden Gate Park. These children need to be evacuated immediately!


Training manuals of the US Navy for Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare

I will be adding content to this as there are many training manuals and I will provide links to those online. I have to go through all ofthem. Here are some relating directly to Treasure Island, indicated in the documents.

ABC WARFARE DEFENSE 1960 and 1963 photogaphed at Treasure Island

Photographed on Treasure Island. Notice the Marine Headlands in the background and Alcatraz Island. This is near the Arsenic bubble that the Navy had to clean up , it would be in this picture behind and to the right and right next to the mock up ship the USS Pandemonium.

ABC warfare defense ashore: United States Navy 1060

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1946 Chemical Warfare Training and Radium Plaque Adaptometer course Schedules at Treasure Island and the Navy

Naval Training Bulletin 1946-47
This article will list the courses published in the Naval Training Bulletin for Chemical Warfare and Radium Plaque Adaptometer at Treasure Island Navy Base, which is also the 12th Naval Naval District Command and Naval Schools Command. I will present Treasure Island first and then the rest of the Navy so you can see which Districts specialized in this training over time.

The Radium Plaque Adaptometer was a device where a radium source was placed within 10 inches of the eyes in order to test the ability of the sailor to see at night. Radium causes phosphur to illuminate at very dim levels that cannot be replicated with light bulbs. They conducted this test on all Navy personnel from 1944 to 1951 thus exposing them to intense radiation.

Treasure Island February 15, 1946: Chemical Warfare and Radium Plaque Adaptometer

Naval Training Bulletin 15 Feb 1946

Boston – Chemical Warfare School – Feb 1946

Brooklyn – Chemical Warfare and Radium Plaque Adaptometer – Feb 1946

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Chemical Warfare Weapons of the US from US Naval Training Bulletin March 1944

The US had chemical weapons ready to be used in retaliation to any German or Japanese chemical or biological warfare attack. We had various types of weapons shown in thsi chart from March 1944 Naval Training Bulletin.

Source” Naval Training Bulletin 15 March 1944

Naval Training Bulletin 15 March 1944
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Mustard VX and Sarin Gases used in Training for Chemical Warfare Schools 1978 Environmental Impact Statement

Draft Environmental Impact Statement Establishment of the US Army NBC Defense School
16 August 1978 (Revised 21 Nov 1978)

GB is Sarin Gas
VX is a Nerve agent
Mustard Gas burns the skin, lungs, eyes etc
U is Uranium
Pu is Plutonium
Cs is Cesium 137

Background on Joint training and the manuals

The Training at Treasure Island referred to in this Environmental Impact Statement for the creation of a new Chemical Biological and Radiological School which also includes the Environmental impact of a school. The entire book is an instruction manual on the use of Mustard, Sarin and VX Nerve Gas well as biological aand radiological training with step by step instructions.

This has been consistent in all training manuals, they encompass all sites with the training usually at Edgewood Arsenal, Treasure Island and Fort McClelland as shown below from the 1952 Chemical Warfare Defense manual cites those three sites for same training manuals, I will cite more below. Fort McClelland temporarily took over from Treasure Island from 1967 to the early 1970s when they moved the training devices and mock ups from the west side of the island under the present day housing to the north east side of the island.

This article will focus on the 1978 Report

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1978 EIS Appendix C-1 – GB (Sarin) and VX Field Identification and Decontamination Exercises

1978 Environmental Impact Statement for the Army to build a brand new Chemical, Biological and Radiological Training Facility with references to the training at Treasure Island. These are the Course instructions, how they did it, what they measured out, etc.

GB is Sarin Gas
VX is a Nerve agent
Mustard Gas burns the skin, lungs, eyes etc

Appendix C-1 GB (Sarin) and VX Field Identification and Decontamination Exercises

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COVER UP – 1982 CDC Formaldehyde poisoning report at Customs Office on Treasure Island – nobody told them about the Biological Warfare Training

Lists of chemicals including Formaldhyde using in Biological Warfare Defense Training Manual 1953 below

The Navy forgot to mention to the CDC and the NIH its use of Formaldhyde in Biological Warfare Training at Treasure Island and allowed these people to be harmed. The NIH investigated why these people were showing signs of Fomaldehyde Poisoning, but instead of evacuating everyone the Navy decided to COVER IT UP!

Training in Formaldehyde

Biological Warfare Defense 1953
Biologicla Warfare Defense 1953

The training manual Biological Warfare Defense 1953 used on Treasure Island details the use of these toxic chemicals in the cleaning up of biological contamination at the Chemical Warfare School on Treasure Island.

Biological Warfare Defense 1953

As you can see the trainers would purposely infect vehicles for Atomic, Biological and Radiological Defense and this was the method used for Biological Training decontamination. For Chemical and Radiological decontamination they were dressed in chemical suits and washed the contaminents directly off of the vehicles and equipment and that is why this tiny Navy Base had several bus painting facilities to decontaminate and repaint the equipment for reuse in training.

ABC Warfare Defense 1960, 1963

ABC Warfare Defense 1960, 1963 Field Gun at Treasure Iland being decontaminated. That’s Alcatraz and the Marine Headlines in the background.

The CDC Report:
Link to page on CDC website Health Hazard Evaluation Report No. HETA 82-176-1236

PDF report:
Health hazard evaluation report: HETA-82-176-1236, U. S. Customs Service, Patrol Division Office, Treasure Island, San Francisco, California
Worker exposures to formaldehyde (50000) were investigated on April 21, 1982 at the United States Customs Service Patrol Division Office (SIC-9999) at Treasure Island, San Francisco, California. The evaluation was requested by the National Treasury Employees Union, Chapter 165, on behalf of eight workers who complained of eye, nose and throat irritation. Area air samples were analyzed, and employees were questioned about medical symptoms. Air samples contained 0.15 to 0.23 parts per million of formaldehyde. NIOSH recommends that formaldehyde exposures be kept to the lowest feasible limit. The workers reported eye and respiratory irritation, cough, chest tightness, headache, nausea, and fatigue. The authors conclude that formaldehyde exposure hazard exists at this work site. They recommend improvement of the ventilation system.

Continue reading “COVER UP – 1982 CDC Formaldehyde poisoning report at Customs Office on Treasure Island – nobody told them about the Biological Warfare Training”