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Training manuals of the US Navy for Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare

I will be adding content to this as there are many training manuals and I will provide links to those online. I have to go through all ofthem. Here are some relating directly to Treasure Island, indicated in the documents.

ABC WARFARE DEFENSE 1960 and 1963 photogaphed at Treasure Island

Photographed on Treasure Island. Notice the Marine Headlands in the background and Alcatraz Island. This is near the Arsenic bubble that the Navy had to clean up , it would be in this picture behind and to the right and right next to the mock up ship the USS Pandemonium.

ABC warfare defense ashore: United States Navy 1060

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Mustard VX and Sarin Gases used in Training for Chemical Warfare Schools 1978 Environmental Impact Statement

Draft Environmental Impact Statement Establishment of the US Army NBC Defense School
16 August 1978 (Revised 21 Nov 1978)

GB is Sarin Gas
VX is a Nerve agent
Mustard Gas burns the skin, lungs, eyes etc
U is Uranium
Pu is Plutonium
Cs is Cesium 137

Background on Joint training and the manuals

The Training at Treasure Island referred to in this Environmental Impact Statement for the creation of a new Chemical Biological and Radiological School which also includes the Environmental impact of a school. The entire book is an instruction manual on the use of Mustard, Sarin and VX Nerve Gas well as biological aand radiological training with step by step instructions.

This has been consistent in all training manuals, they encompass all sites with the training usually at Edgewood Arsenal, Treasure Island and Fort McClelland as shown below from the 1952 Chemical Warfare Defense manual cites those three sites for same training manuals, I will cite more below. Fort McClelland temporarily took over from Treasure Island from 1967 to the early 1970s when they moved the training devices and mock ups from the west side of the island under the present day housing to the north east side of the island.

This article will focus on the 1978 Report


Continue reading “Mustard VX and Sarin Gases used in Training for Chemical Warfare Schools 1978 Environmental Impact Statement”

1978 EIS Appendix C-5 Alpha Field Survey

1978 Environmental Impact Statement for the Army to build a brand new Chemical, Biological and Radiological Training Facility with references to the training at Treasure Island. These are the Course instructions, how they did it, what they measured out, etc.
using Uranium and/or Plutonium in these exerices.

Pu is Plutonium
U is Uranium
Cs is Cesium

Continue reading “1978 EIS Appendix C-5 Alpha Field Survey”

1978 EIS Appendix C-1 – GB (Sarin) and VX Field Identification and Decontamination Exercises

1978 Environmental Impact Statement for the Army to build a brand new Chemical, Biological and Radiological Training Facility with references to the training at Treasure Island. These are the Course instructions, how they did it, what they measured out, etc.

GB is Sarin Gas
VX is a Nerve agent
Mustard Gas burns the skin, lungs, eyes etc

Appendix C-1 GB (Sarin) and VX Field Identification and Decontamination Exercises

Continue reading “1978 EIS Appendix C-1 – GB (Sarin) and VX Field Identification and Decontamination Exercises”
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Safety levels of nuclear radiation have changed over the years making previous cleanups are now nuclear accidents

When the government says that a site was cleaned up in the past, remember that the safety standards of the time are nuclear accidents today. It depends on when it was cleaned up. For instance the Nuclear Fuel Rod plant in San Jose was cleaned up to mid 1950s standards when the Atomic Energy Commission was worried about people getting Radiation Poisoniing and not the long term effects of cancer. It is now The Plant shopping center and it has to be re-evaluated for contamination. All of these sites have to be re-examined to determine if people are in danger!

10 CFR § 20.1301 – Dose limits for individual members of the public.
§ 20.1301 Dose limits for individual members of the public.

Source:

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Stauffer Chemical Richmond on list of 153 Sites for the Nuclear Weapons Industry

USA Today had an article on the sites contaminated for the production of the Atomic Bomb. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission came up with this list of 153 sites all over the US in response to the FOIA request.
Memo to Commissioners TAs from J. Craig, EDO re: Staff Evaluation of Sites Indentified in the USA Today Article Dated 09/06/00.

Note that cleanup of nuclear materials before 1959 was concerned with preventing radiation sickness but when people started to develop cancer, the standards changed drastically. So sites cleaned up even a few years ago, including Treasure Island where the standards of the time exceed the safe levels today. This is a preliminary list, there are more.

Continue reading “Stauffer Chemical Richmond on list of 153 Sites for the Nuclear Weapons Industry”

Navy Medics to Study New War Defenses at Treasure Island and US Naval Biological Laboratory Oakland

Navy Medics to Study New War Defenses Oakland Tribune, Jan 5 1958 p 14

Atomic Biological and Chemcial Warfare course at Treasure Island.

U.S. Naval Hospital in Oakland
US Naval Biological Laboratory at the Naval Supply Center in Oakland
UC Radiations Laboratory at Donner Laboratory on the UC campus
General Electrics PG&E Atomic Reactor at Pleasanton
US Naval Radiological Laboratory at Hunters Point.

Post War Re-organization of the Navy and the beginning of Radiological Training at Treasure Island

Naval training bulletin. October 1946 page 28

Training begins

The Bureau of Medicine was training medical personnel in Radiological Safety starting at Treasure Island on 4 July 1947.

The Damage Control School was in operation continuously since World War II and they were experimenting on various ways to clean up ships parked at Treasure Ilsand that were used in the Atomic Test at Bikini Atoll in 1946 but the first formal courses to be used continuously for 2 decades started at Treasure Island in January of 1948.

In November 1946
Training begins with a correspondence Course to get traininees ready for actual hands on training to be done later and to weed out the prospects.

November 1946 issue of US Naval Training Bulletin pp. 40-41

https://hdl.handle.net/2027/uiug.30112119813316?urlappend=%3Bseq=361%3Bownerid=113434308-365

Formal Course schedule of Radiological Safety 6 weeks of training at Treasure Island

Naval training bulletin. January 1948

The Navy started Radiological Training at Treasure Island in January 1948 but they had individual courses before aminly by the Bureau of Medicine.

IN 1946 Operation Crossroads was used to figureout how to clean up after an atomic bomb balst. Instead they accidentally irradiated most ofhte Pacific Fleet support ships that were not supposed to be irradiated. So tehy sent the ships to ports on the West Coast and at Norfolk to figure ut how to clean them and this led to the ships being parked at Treasure ISland where the Damage Control School was figuring out ways to clean up these ships and develop training courses that started in 1948.

It took them that time to develop the training manuals for radiological safety.

Training tranfers from Treasure Island to Fort McClellan Fall 1967

US Naval Training Bulletin Fall 1967