NAVFAC which is now denying that Radium was purposely buried on Navy Bases, gave the orders to do just that in June 1974. NAVFAC should not be in charge of cleaning up its own messes.
When the government says that a site was cleaned up in the past, remember that the safety standards of the time are nuclear accidents today. It depends on when it was cleaned up. For instance the Nuclear Fuel Rod plant in San Jose was cleaned up to mid 1950s standards when the Atomic Energy Commission was worried about people getting Radiation Poisoniing and not the long term effects of cancer. It is now The Plant shopping center and it has to be re-evaluated for contamination. All of these sites have to be re-examined to determine if people are in danger!
10 CFR § 20.1301 – Dose limits for individual members of the public.
§ 20.1301 Dose limits for individual members of the public.
- (a) Each licensee shall conduct operations so that –
- (1) The total effective dose equivalent to individual members of the public from the licensed operation does not exceed 0.1 rem (1 mSv) in a year, exclusive of the dose contributions from background radiation, from any medical administration the individual has received, from exposure to individuals administered radioactive material and released under § 35.75, from voluntary participation in medical research programs, and from the licensee‘s disposal of radioactive material into sanitary sewerage in accordance with § 20.2003, and
- (2) The dose in any unrestricted area from external sources, exclusive of the dose contributions from patients administered radioactive material and released in accordance with § 35.75, does not exceed 0.002 rem (0.02 millisievert) in any one hour.
- (b) If the licensee permits members of the public to have access to controlled areas, the limits for members of the public continue to apply to those individuals.
- (c) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a licensee may permit visitors to an individual who cannot be released, under § 35.75, to receive a radiation dose greater than 0.1 rem (1 mSv) if –
- (d) A licensee or license applicant may apply for prior NRC authorization to operate up to an annual dose limit for an individual member of the public of 0.5 rem (5 mSv). The licensee or license applicant shall include the following information in this application:
- (1) Demonstration of the need for and the expected duration of operations in excess of the limit in paragraph (a) of this section;
- (2) The licensee‘s program to assess and control dose within the 0.5 rem (5 mSv) annual limit; and
- (3) The procedures to be followed to maintain the dose as low as is reasonably achievable.
- (e) In addition to the requirements of this part, a licensee subject to the provisions of EPA’s generally applicable environmental radiation standards in 40 CFR part 190 shall comply with those standards.
- (f) The Commission may impose additional restrictions on radiation levels in unrestricted areas and on the total quantity of radionuclides that a licensee may release in effluents in order to restrict the collective dose.
- [56 FR 23398, May 21, 1991, as amended at 60 FR 48625, Sept. 20, 1995; 62 FR 4133, Jan. 29, 1997; 67 FR 20370, Apr. 24, 2002; 67 FR 62872, Oct. 9, 2002]
USA Today had an article on the sites contaminated for the production of the Atomic Bomb. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission came up with this list of 153 sites all over the US in response to the FOIA request.
Memo to Commissioners TAs from J. Craig, EDO re: Staff Evaluation of Sites Indentified in the USA Today Article Dated 09/06/00.
Note that cleanup of nuclear materials before 1959 was concerned with preventing radiation sickness but when people started to develop cancer, the standards changed drastically. So sites cleaned up even a few years ago, including Treasure Island where the standards of the time exceed the safe levels today. This is a preliminary list, there are more.Continue reading “Stauffer Chemical Richmond on list of 153 Sites for the Nuclear Weapons Industry”
this is alicense amednment which lists the qualifications of a resume for Dr. Edward A. Weck, Head, Molecular Genetics Research which lists his Radiological work at Stauffer Chemical.
Additional industrial experience was gained at Stauffer Chemical Co., Richmond, CA from February 1985 through March 1987 where I served as Assistant Radiation Safety Officer. We had annual presentations on the safe use of radioactivity from our local health physicist and from a New England Nuclear consultant. I worked with 32P and 35S and was responsible with organizing removal of radioactive waste by US Ecology of Hayward, CA.
“Radiological Precautions” By GLENN ZIMMER Radiological Safety Officer The Navy Civil Engineer Spring 1972, p 16
The Radiological Affairs Support Program has been established by the Chief of Naval Material within the Naval Facilities Engineering Command. The CNM has assigned Commander, NAVFAC, the responsibility to act for CNM in matters of radiological affairs. This covers all aspects of ionizing radiation except nuclear propulsion, nuclear weapon criticality, and medical applications within the NMC to, in the words of Adm. B. A. Clarey, “collate, coordinate and monitor — all aspects of radiological controls—.”
Part of this program will be to assure that a uniform program of radiological protection is established within all systems commands, with assistance to the fleets on an “as-required” basis.
Up until now there has not been a coordinated radiological program within the Navy. This has led to conflicting regulations in some cases that has ended with confusion and a lack of control. The aim is to bring central coordination to radiological affairs so that the Navy can assure radiation protection of all personnel within the Navy, and of the environment. This program will include radioactive materials that are used under license authority of the Atomic Energy Commission, those occurring naturally (such as radium), and X-rays.
Heretofore, radium has not been controlled within the Navy, primarily because the use of radium has not been regulated by the Atomic Energy Commission, the U.S. Public Health Service, or any other agency. However, radium is just as harmful as other radioactive materials which have been produced in a reactor, and a control program will be brought into effect on this material.
Industrial use of X-rays is another area that will require attention and control. In the past there has not been a program at all locations for controlling the use of X-rays.
There are needs within the Navy to have instrumentation developed for monitoring to help assure radiological safety. Recommendations will be made from NAVFAC to the appropriate naval activities responsible for development of instrumentation or control procedures.
One of the important reasons for having this program is that it is necessary in the field of radiation protection to have technically-qualified personnel evaluate hazards to personnel and to devise control measures. NAVFAC has a small group of highly-qualified, highly-technical personnel in headquarters and at the Naval Nuclear Power Unit to perform this type of a function.
By having a single central office coordinating radiological affairs and providing technical assistance we can assure radiological control and protection. It is a tremendous responsibility and opportunity for NAVFAC to have been selected to perform this type of a function, because the program is of major importance to the Fleet, and the Navy.
Radiological Training Begun • Ft Belvoir, Va.
In June, 1974, the OIC, Naval Nuclear Power Unit (NNPU) was tasked by Commander, Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), with providing radiological training within the U. S. Navy. The Radiological Training Department (RTD) was es- tablished in July, 1974, with the addition of two Medical Service Corps instructor billets from the Chief of Naval Education and Training.
The initial training effort was directed toward the radium removal operations program for inactive Naval vessels. Responsibility for this course was transferred to NNPU following the decommissioning of the Navy Training Unit, Fort McClellan, Ala. The need was established when it was found that many luminescent devices aboard decommissioned ships contained radium in quantities considered excessive and potentially dangerous.
These devices must be removed and properly disposed of prior to transfer of the vessel. The radium removal operations course is designed to enable inactive fleet maintenance personnel to safely locate, remove, and dispose of radioactive materials found aboard inactive ships. Three such courses were conducted in July and August of 1974 with 48 students becoming certified as radium removal operators.
A parallel radium removal course for active ships was then designed in an effort to remove items containing radium from the active fleet and replace them with non-hazardous substitutes. Shore based teams of mainte- nance support personnel have been trained as radium removal operators in an effort to prevent the additional work load from being assigned to shipboard personnel.
Removal and disposal procedures are, therefore, centralized in major home ports where they can be more easily monitored and controlled. Commanding officers can schedule surveys for their ships by submitting a standard work request to the Fleet Main- tenance Assistance Group located in their home port.
The surveys will then be conducted during a convenient in-port period. To date, one course has been conducted on each coast, and radium removal teams are now established in Norfolk, Charleston, Mayport, San Diego, San Francisco, and Pearl Harbor.
Training department personnel have recently completed a nuclear weapons radiological survey operations course – which will enable personnel to conduct radiological surveys in weapons storage areas in ships or shore facilities. Students will learn how to evaluate survey data and determine what actions are necessary in order to ensure current personnel radiation protection standards are met. Classes began in April, 1975, with training being conducted at the Nuclear Weapons Training Groups in Norfolk, Va. Diego, Calif.
Future plans include development and San of a radiation safety officer (RSO) : course which will meet training requirements for individuals filling RS0 billets throughout the Navy. The Course will be approximately two weeks in length and will cover a wide range of subjects including the detection of ionizing radiation, personnel protection measures, the development of standard operating procedures including those for X and gamma ray radiography, and rules and regulations pertaining to radiation sources licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Alpha Particle training at Treasure Island was conducted in Building 343 in a chamber that held various devices that would expose different types of nuclear radiation and the students were required to find the source and determine the safe levels away from the source and mark those on the floor.
Generally counting devices were used that had three settings, the default was gamma and for beta particles you removed one of two slides of glass to take the beta reading and then remove the remaining slide to detect alpha particles. Usually that was not enough and so they conducted swipe tests whereby the instructor would place a powder containing alpha particles onto surfaces and the student would have to find it and take a swab. This test was done on all bases and ships as it is very important to find alpha particle radiation indicating the presence of a nuclear weapon. The last photograph of this article is from the USS Proteus a nuclear submarine showing the areas used for regular training in radiation detection.
This means they had to secure the gamma and beta sources the Cesium 137 sources (Cs 137) so a good reading can be made.
But because the radiation training involved direct exposure to all the safety requirements often resulted in instructors avoiding the swab tests as they took on larger doses if this was done regularly and hence the use of devices. The problem is that in order to test properly for alpha particles you need to do the swab tests. A problem to this day.
We know they did this training because of the devices were in the building and other reports where they detail the swab testing. Here is a diagram of the building, a notice about the devices used, a photograph of the building today and the instructions from United States. Army. U.S. Army Nuclear, Biological And Chemical School (AL,MD): Environmental Impact Statement. , 1979.
Note the cleanup broke into this building and ripped off the roof and broke into the “Radium Vault” which is between the two buildings in the mid left which contained all sorts of nuclear isotopes, probably still does and they in their recklessness damaged it not realizing it was fortified for a reason. They destroyed it with barbarism and ignorance.Continue reading “Alpha Particle Radiation Detection Training at Treasure Island San Francisco CA and the facilities”
This document lists the resumes with work experience with Plutonium, Cobalt, Cesium, and other radioactive materials and devices. This is a legal document, subjecting the application to comply with all laws and regulations under penalty of perjury.
The Navy would have you believe that the amounts of radiation are small or it’s just Radium. But the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has licenses for all materials used on Treasure Island by the US Navy, including the dates and signatures of all officials who signed under penalty of perjury. This is just one example of many others but a good example of how the record shows the materials used and when.
I will list the isotopes used, the quantities used, the isotope name and half lives for Robert E Sleever.
Pages 21 and 22 of 151 show the experience of
ROBERT E. SLEEVER
Quality Assurance Calibration Lab
|Isotope||Maximum Activity||isotope name||half life|
|Tl208||Microcuries||Thallium 208||3 min|
|Ra226||Microcuries||Radium 226||1685 years|
|Th228||Microcuries||Thorium 228||1.9 years|
|U235||Microcuries||Uranium 235||7,000,000 years|
|U238||Microcuries||Uranium 238||4.47 years|
|Pu239||Microcuries||Plutonium 239||24110 years|
|Co60||30,000 Curies||Cobalt 60||5.27 years|
|Cs137||30,000 Curies||Cesium 137||30 years|
|PuBe||30,000 Curies||Neutron Source|
|Mn54||30,000 Curies||Manganese 54||312 days|
|Co57||30,000 Curies||Cobalt 57||271 days|
|Zn65||30,000 Curies||Zinc 65||243 days|
|Kr85||30,000 Curies||Krypton 85||10.7 years|
|Y88||30,000 Curies||Yttrium 88||106 days|
|Sr90||30,000 Curies||Strontium 90||28.9 years|
|Tc99||30,000 Curies||Technetium 99||2110,000 years|
|Cd109||30,000 Curies||Cadmium 109||1.26 years|
|I131||30,000 Curies||Iodine 131||8 days|
|Ba133||30,000 Curies||Barium 133||10.5 years|
|Tl204||30,000 Curies||Thallium 204||3.77 years|
|Bi207||30,000 Curies||Bismuth 207||32.9 years|
|AmBe||30,000 Curies||Neutron Source|
This is the table for Alfonzo Gonzales. Note the devices listed with the isotopes, these are containers for the isotopes so they can be used to check the counters for accuracy.
The opening three pages of this document: