Chemical Warfare Training at Treasure Island San Francisco started 7 Jan 1946 and then every 2 weeks

This article will be addedonto but I thought I should mention tht the Chemical Warfare training was conducted on Treasure Island and here are the course schedules

TRAINING IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA Naval training bulletin, June 1951 Publisher: [Washington, D.C.] : Bureau of Naval Personnel

12th Naval District Chemical Warfare Instructor’s Course 7 Jan 1946 and then every two weeks

US Naval Training Bulletin January 1946 p. 17

Post War Re-organization of the Navy and the beginning of Radiological Training at Treasure Island

Naval training bulletin. October 1946 page 28

Training begins

The Bureau of Medicine was training medical personnel in Radiological Safety starting at Treasure Island on 4 July 1947.

The Damage Control School was in operation continuously since World War II and they were experimenting on various ways to clean up ships parked at Treasure Ilsand that were used in the Atomic Test at Bikini Atoll in 1946 but the first formal courses to be used continuously for 2 decades started at Treasure Island in January of 1948.

In November 1946
Training begins with a correspondence Course to get traininees ready for actual hands on training to be done later and to weed out the prospects.

November 1946 issue of US Naval Training Bulletin pp. 40-41

https://hdl.handle.net/2027/uiug.30112119813316?urlappend=%3Bseq=361%3Bownerid=113434308-365

Formal Course schedule of Radiological Safety 6 weeks of training at Treasure Island

Naval training bulletin. January 1948

The Navy started Radiological Training at Treasure Island in January 1948 but they had individual courses before aminly by the Bureau of Medicine.

IN 1946 Operation Crossroads was used to figureout how to clean up after an atomic bomb balst. Instead they accidentally irradiated most ofhte Pacific Fleet support ships that were not supposed to be irradiated. So tehy sent the ships to ports on the West Coast and at Norfolk to figure ut how to clean them and this led to the ships being parked at Treasure ISland where the Damage Control School was figuring out ways to clean up these ships and develop training courses that started in 1948.

It took them that time to develop the training manuals for radiological safety.

Training tranfers from Treasure Island to Fort McClellan Fall 1967

US Naval Training Bulletin Fall 1967
Featured

MAP of Mock up of Ship used in Biological, Chemical and Radiological Training at TI

The First USS Pandemonium, a mock up of a training ship was used for Biological, Chemical and Radiological Training at Treasure Island. This article presents the maps of the island, past 1959 and present Google maps with an aerial photograph of the ship from 1969. How the overlay was made.

Map of Ship with current Google Map of Treasure Island

In 1957, the Navy built the first USS Pandemonium to be used as a training vessel built on land for (ABC) Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare Training.

Current map with the ships opacity so you can see the streets below. The ship goes through building 1315 and across the street into building 1316. When the Navy excvates those buildings, they will find even more radiation and contamination.

This image (Below) is from the Figure 8.3-21 Former USS Pandemonium Location on Northwest Corner, Treasure Island Naval Station Historical Radiological Assessment February 2006 page 8-24

Figure 8.3-21 Former USS Pandemonium Location on Northwest Corner, Treasure Island Naval Station Historical Radiological Assessment February 2006 page 8-24 Notice the three tanks in the triangle shape, the lead lines got ot two different tanks from the taink used for the washing off the radioactive materials from the ship during training.

Notice the slanted line in the ship photograph matches up with the slanted line in the 1959 map as well as teh curve in the road adn the dirt road street to the right, including the rectangular structure to the far right all matches up with the map below.

1959 USGS Map of Treasure Island Historical Topographic Map Collection detail of CA_Oakland West_293624_1959_24000

And then the overlay of the present Google map on the 1959 USGS map shows the Avenue B as the road that the dirt road corresponds with on the 1959 map

Historical Topographic Map Collection

Resulting in the map at the top of this blog

Also notice the two tanks in the triangle shape which has a land component in its middle and the tank near the road which was the immediate collection tank from washing chemcial, biological and radiological material off the ship.

The training took place every 2 weeks because the radioactive bromide’s half life makes it “safe” in 1950s standards for safety to be dumped into the bay. Of course if you tried this today it would be illegal.

That tank would have the material sit in it for two weeks before being dumped into one of the other two tanks to sit out for 4 weeks before being dumped into the bay. If you look close you can see the little channels leading to each tank in the large triangle. Three tanks were needed to keep the operation going every 2 weeks.

The Triangle is in the Meadow which is where they found the high concentrations of Arsenic. Lewisite is a chemical weapon made of arsenic and acetylene and fits the description of the toxins.

The pandemonium in silhouette with a self propelled gun used in Mustard Gas Experiments at Treasure Island by the Office of Naval Research in 1964. Note hte Mustard Gas experiments are to the north of the ship in what is now the SWDA site where they found a mortar capable of shelling the Bay Bridge.

ABC School means Atomic, Biological and Chemical Warfare Training School. This text is on page 1 of the of Office of Naval Research Mustard Gas test at Treasure Island:

“BACKGROUND

As a result of the favorable properties reported for the U.S. Army Chemical Corps chemical warfare decontaminant DS2, tests of this material under shipboard conditions appeared desirable. Accordingly, the Bureau of Ships requested the ABC Defense School, Treasure Island, to submit plans for conduct of the tests by its own staff. It was expected that this group would be capable of performing the evaluation both efficiently and from a shipboard point of view.

Test plans were developed by the Treasure Island group and forwarded to the Bureau of Ships. The plans were studied by the Bureau and this Laboratory and approved with minor changes. A target of January 1959, was set for the test period, at which time a supply of DS2 could be supplied through the cooperation of the U.S. Army Chemical Corps.

The chemical warfare agent chosen for the DS2 evaluation tests was mustard gas (HD). Laboratory tests by the Chemical Corps had shown that mustard is the most difficult of the common persistent CW agents to decontaminate with DS2 (1). In addition, mustard was readily available at the ABC school, is safe to handle with reasonable precautions, and is capable of punishing the careless or unprotected worker by burns of varying severity.” Link to the Chemical Warfare Test using Mustard Gas at Treasure Island in 1964.

Below is the full 1959 map:

1959 USGS Map of Treasure Island Historical Topographic Map Collection detail of CA_Oakland West_293624_1959_24000
This map also shows the

Figure 8.3-21 Former USS Pandemonium Location on Northwest Corner, Treasure Island Naval Station Historical Radiological Assessment February 2006 page 8-24

1951 TI-ATOMIC AND CHEMICAL TRAINING IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA 1951 https://treasureislandcalifornia.wordpress.com/2020/12/27/ti-atomic-and-chemical-training-in-the-san-francisco-area-1951/

TRAINING IN THE SAN FRANCISCO AREA Naval training bulletin, June 1951 Publisher: [Washington, D.C.] : Bureau of Naval Personnel